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James A.Bro 



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Mary A . Ba 



eorg K. Neum 



gentl 





NOV 3 1967 



Illinois State Museum 



STATE OF ILLINOIS 
Otto Kerner, Governor 

DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION 
John C. Watson, Director 

ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 
Milton D. Thompson, Museum Director 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS 



, No. 12 



THE GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 
LA SALLE COUNTY, ILLINOIS 



by 

James A. Brown 

and 

Roger W. Willis 

Mary A. Barth 

Georg K. Neumann 




(Printed by authority of the State of Illinois) 
1967 



BOARD OF THE 
ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 

Everett P. Coleman, M.D., Chairman 
Coleman Clinic, Canton 

John C . Watson Albert Myers 

Director, Department of Vice-President, Myers Bros. 

Registration and Education Springfield 

Sol Tax, Ph.D ., Secretary William Sylvester White 

Professor of Anthropology Judge, Circuit Court 

Dean, University Extension Cook County, Chicago 
University of Chicago 

C. Leplie Kanatzar, Ph.D. E. Leland Webber 

Dean of MacMurray College Director, Field Museum of 

Jacksonville Natural History, Chicago 




srs^x^s- vzzszis sLVsx^r b " ial 



PREFAC] 



Unpublished archaeological reports and ma- 
" trials constitute one of the major resources upon 
which current research could profitably capitalize 
This veritable treasure to be found in museums 
and other repositories, if brought to the attention 
ot the archaeological profession and the general 
public, would substantially fill many of the appar- 
ent gaps in the archaeological record. Many in- 
vestivators find that some of the kinds of sites 
and materials that they are seeking have already 
been excavated and that a certain amount of 
relevant data is already available to bear upon 
current research problems. To make parts of 
this backlog of unpublished data available in a 
form relevant to contemporary research orienta- 
tions is, of course, another matter. And in gener- 
al, the longer the gap between excavation and 
final analysis, the more difficult the task, not 
only because of the attrition that the excavation 
records suffer, but also because of the growing 
disparity between old and new excavating and 
data recovering techniques. 

The following report represents an updated 
analysis of just such an excavation of acknowl- 
edged value that was made 25 years ago. It is 
one of a series of studies undertaken by the Illi- 
nois State Museum of the earlier excavations in 
La Salle County by the Museum, the Department 
of Anthropology of the University of Chicago 
and the Department of Public Works of the State 
W Illinois. A summary report on the excavations 
;at the Zimmerman site has already been pub- 
Kshed (Brown 1961) and a study of the Starved 
Rock excavations is being prepared by Robert 
L Hall. These studies will substantially increase 
jour knowledge of not only the cultural sequence 
n the upper Illinois Valley but also the cultural 
situation in late prehistoric and early historic 
limes in northern Illinois. 

I This report on the Gentleman Farm site is one 
m, at different stages, has undergone analysis 
|'| each of the authors separately. Roger W. Wil- 
s conducted the original excavations and sub- 
mitted a report that became the nucleus of the 
.resent version. Mary A. Barth, then Mary Al- 



ee drew upon it for a more extended analysis 
n her M.A thesis. Since then the literature for 
the late prehistoric period has been enriched con- 
siderab y, and a number of new analytical tech- 
niques have appeared that can be profitably used 
in the analysis of the Gentleman Farm site. The 
contribution of Brown was originally intended in 
1961 to be minor, but as publication was defer- 
red, the availability of more comparative mater- 
ial and new analytical approaches widened the 
scope of the report to a major extent. Just how 
much ,s shown by the reliance upon recent liter- 
ature. 

Since the authors have depended upon the ser- 
vices of many individuals over the period from 
the beginning of the excavations to the final ver- 
sion of the report, it is difficult to accord due 
appreciation to all, no matter what their contri- 
bution. Our indebtedness is naturally to a mul- 
titude, to whom we express our heartfelt thanks. 
We would like to single out a few. Those whose 
cooperation made the salvage operation possible 
were Fay-Cooper Cole, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology of the University of Chi- 
cago, Thorne Deuel, Director of the Illinois State 
Museum, Gretchen Cutter, District Supervisor 
Museum Extension Project of the W.P.A., and the 
U.S. Army Engineers. During the preparation 
of versions of this report, substantial assistance 
and stimulation were received from the support 
advice, and criticism of Joseph R. Caldwell,' 
Thorne Deuel, Robert L. Hall, Howard D. Win- 
ters, and Warren L. Wittry. Many willingly as- 
sisted in technical problems and their aid is grate- 
fully acknowledged. Fredrick Barth, formerly of 
the University of Chicago, contributed the origi- 
nal list of faunal identifications, which was com- 
bined with that of Paul W. Parmalee, at that time 
Curator of Zoology of the Illinois State Museum 
and presently Assistant Director. Faye Berry Gar- 
vue drew the illustrations; Charles Hodge printed 
the finished photographs; and Gail Schroeder 
edited the final manuscript. The final typescript 
was prepared with the generous aid of the Muse- 
um of Michigan State University. 



JAB 
November 1966 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter I Introduction. . . 

1 

II The Gentleman Farm Mound 

• 4 

III The Gentleman Farm Village 

IV Pottery . . . 

3 21 

V Non-Ceramic Artifacts 

VI Interpretation 

36 

Summary. . . . 

44 

Appendix: Age and Sex of Skeletons from Mound Ls°2, by Georg K. Neumann ... .45 

References Cited . . . 

46 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Pa § e 

1. The locations, positions, osteology, and associations of 

burials from the Gentleman Farm Mound 9 

2. Disposition of the articulated burials 12 

3. Classes of articulated burials 15 

4. List of disarticulated remains 16 

5. Orientation of articulated burials by age and sex 17 

6. Association of vessels and/or mussel shell spoons according to the 

different orientations of sex and age groups 17 

7. Association of vessels and/or mussel shell spoons with north and 

south divisions among complete burials 19 

8. Core color in the neck region of 102 Langford Series rims, LsVl and Ls°2 .... 22 

9. Frequencies of width of incised and trailed lines on the 

Langford Series LsVl and Ls°2 22 

10. Association of rimsherd cross section with lip shape in the 

Langford Series, Ls v l and Ls°2 22 

11. Pots recovered from burials in the Gentleman Farm Mound 27 

12. Sherd frequencies from the Gentleman Farm Site ^ 2? 

13. Faunal remains from the Gentleman Farm Site, Ls v l and Ls°2 37 

14. Gentleman Farm artifact list 38 

15. Comparative table of burial mound statistics and traits 
of the Langford Tradition 

Correspondence of radiocarbon and calendrical dates for Langford 



16 



43 
Ware associations 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
Frontispiece: A view of three burials from Ls°2. 

Figure ?a & 

1. Map of the location of the Gentleman Farm Site 2 

2. Topographic map of the Gentleman Farm Site 3 

3. Idealized drawing of the Gentleman Farm Mound 5 

4. Map of burials from Gentleman Farm » 

5. Burial positions 

6. Map of features in the Northwest Test Area of Ls v l ^ 

7. Gentleman Farm pottery 2 ^ 

8. Gentleman Farm pottery 

9. Gentleman Farm pottery 25 

10. Gentleman Farm pottery and a pot from the Dick Mound 28 

11. Chipped stone artifacts ^ 

12. Bone, antler, shell, and copper artifacts il 

13. Shell spoons 

14. Map of some Middle and Upper Mississippi sites in the 

upper drainage of the Illinois River 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 



The excavation of the Gentleman FaWmottnd 
was principally undertaken to rescue information 
and materials about to be destroyed. Only after 
the completion of the excavation was the signif- 
icance of the mound apparent. Here was a burial 
mound that was comparable to the famous, but 
inadequately known, Fisher Mounds (Langford 
1927). The pioneering efforts of George Langford 
brought these mounds to the attention of archae- 
ologists at a time when Illinois archaeology was 
in its infancy. Laboring under disadvantageous 
conditions, he found evidence of complex stratig- 
raphy, but unfortunately the techniques of that 
day were not equal to the task of adequately un- 
raveling it. A recent interpretation of the stratig- 
raphy has been set forth by J. W. Griffin (1946, 
1948), but the site has yet to be published in de-' 
ail. 

Gentleman Farm, then, stands in a position to 
inswer certain questions about mound construction 
md burial patterns raised by the Fisher site ex- 
:avations, and to clarify our conception of how 
he Gentleman Farm and Fisher sites stand in a 
ocal cultural tradition, the Langford Tradition, 
rhis report will attempt to describe the site and to 
larify its contribution to Illinois archaeology. 



LOCATION 
The Gentleman Farm site was on the property 
i *rank Gentleman, approximately two miles 
ipstream from Ottawa in northeastern Illinois, 
'he legal location, in the Ottawa quadrangle is 
| Wl/2 of the SE1/4 of the SE1/4 of Section 7 
ownship 33 North, Range 4 East, La Salle 
:ounty, Illinois. The east hub on the site map 
Fig. 2) is about 345 feet north of the section 
ne. The mound and most of the site were de- 
royed by the construction of the Bulls Island 
ut-off of the Illinois River (Figs. 1,2). 



GEOLOGY 
The site was situated on the broad plain of the 
Ottawa Terrace, a late glacial feature associated 
with the discharge of Lake Algonquin (Willman 
and Payne 1942:173) via the Chicago outlet 
about the time of the Valders glaciation (Hough 
1963). Immediately east and south of the site is 
an old meander scar associated with the terrace 
that is now partly filled by the artificially raised 
waters of the Illinois River. The terrace at this 
point is composed mostly of gravel and rises 
about 10 feet above the present high level of the 
Illinois River. The physical stratigraphy is shown 
in the section in Figure 3. 



ENVIRONMENT 
The natural habitat is an important consider- 
ation in the understanding of the cultural position 
of the Gentleman Farm site and related sites of the 
Langford Tradition. The predominant vegetational 
aspect in northeastern Illinois is treeless (Sauer 
Cady, and Cowles 1918). Prairie prevails on the 
upland till plains and is even found on the hill 
slopes and in the river bottoms. Trees and shrubs, 
on the other hand, are found largely on the river 
banks and frequently on the relatively narrow 
river bottoms and the tributary stream beds and 
gullies. On the upland, trees are found only in 
open stands (Fuller and Strausbaugh 1919). This 
is the heart of the Prairie Peninsula (Transeau 
1935), which is a major geographical area in the 
Midwest. This area is characterized by communi- 
ties of forest, woodland, savanna, and grassland 
composed in a complex mosaic of vegetation. 
This vegetational structure offered an extremely 
high-carrying capacity to deer and other eco- 
nomically important animals and held high po- 
tentialities in the production of nut and root crops 
(Brown 1965) which were important to the his- 
toric Indian inhabitants (Hagen 1952; Bauxar 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 




(Fig. 1) Map of the location of the Gentleman Farm Site 



EXCAVATION 

The site was scheduled to be destroyed in the 
excavation of the Bulls Island Cut-off when it 
was called to the attention of Gretchen Cutter by 
Mr. Wolsley of the U.S. Army Engineers, Joliet 
Office. Salvage work started at once under the 
direction of Roger W. Willis with the assistance 
of Alfred Harris. The labor was provided by 
the Museum Extension Project of the WPA through 
the kindness of Gretchen Cutter. Excavation was 
carried on for four weeks in October and No- 
vember of 1940, before the mound was com- 
pletely destroyed by the trenching of the channel. 



The site was staked out at 10-foot interval! 
which were subdivided into five-foot squares ir 
a pattern shown in Figure 2. The excavation pro 
cedure followed was that outlined in Cole anc 
Deuel (1937). Work was started in squares 10( 
Rl, 100R5, and 100R9, which were then ex 
panded into a single trench. During the seconc 
two weeks another trench 50 feet long was startec 
into the mound from the north, along the south 
bank of the pit which was dug for coal and gra 
vel. This trench was begun at an angle to th< 
grid system; but as soon as the trench progressed 
into the mound, it was excavated to conform 
with the grid. 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 




jiijjtij 
Mi if * 

I 



CHAPTER II 
THE GENTLEMAN FARM MOUND 



MOUND CONSTRUCTION 
The excavation revealed a fairly simple his- 
tory for the mound. Before it was erected, the lo- 
cation was a cemetery on a slight natural rise of 
about two feet. The graves in the cemetery were 
generally shallow, and less than half of them pen- 
etrated the six to eight inches of humus overlying 
the yellow clay subsoil. They seem to have been 
concentrated in the area where the mound was 
subsequently raised since there were no burials 
found outside the limits of the nround. 

The mound at the time of excavation was ir- 
regularly shaped and measured 100 feet in length 
(Fig. 2). Its shape at that time (1940) was a re- 
sult of strip-mining for coal and gravel about 
50 years earlier. Originally the mound extended 
farther toward the river; and, if it had once been 
circular, about 1/4 to 1/3 of the mound was al- 
ready destroyed. The maximum height was at 
least five feet above the surrounding area (Figs. 
2,3). 

The construction of the mound began with a 
layer of yellow sandy clay about eight to nine 
inches thick that included small amounts of vil- 
lage debris and considerable quantities of ash. 
Concentrations of ash occurred throughout this 
layer, and in one instance ash was associated 
with an infant burial (No. 5). The ash concen- 
trations possibly represent graveside "watch fires," 
which were a consistent part of the rites of the 
Chippewa (Densmore 1929:75), Oto, Missouri 
(Bushnell 1929:64), Menomini(A. Skinner 1913: 
66), and neighboring tribes (White 1959; 
Wheeler-Voegelin 1944). The mortuary fires of 
this historic period were usually kept burning over 
the grave for four days and four nights. In this 
regard it is quite significant that two pre-mound 
primary burials (Nos. 16, 33) were immediately 
overlain by a thin charcoal layer. None of the 
burials were deposited in this layer except per- 
haps No. 5. Rather, this layer occurs between 
the burial zones, and if the hypothesis of mor- 
tuary origin for the ash is correct, it was built 
as a by-product of the burial activities. 



The second layer was dark brown loam 18 to 
24 inches thick. This layer included the bulk of 
the cultural debris in the mound and probably 
came from an area reported to have been sterile 
between the occupation area (Ls v l) and the mound. 
All the graves that did not pre-date this stage of 
the mound originated either in this layer or in- 
truded into it during construction of the mound 
shortly afterwards. None, however, were clearly 
intrusive from the top of the mound, upon which 
there was an undisturbed modern humus. 



BURIALS 

Remains of 48 individuals were taken from the 
small portion of the mound that was excavated. 
They were recovered in all stages of preservation, 
but on the whole the bone was in good condition. 
The total number of burials that were once in the 
mound has been estimated from the density of 
this sample to have been between 200 and 300 
(Willis 1941). 

Most of the burials from the mound proper 
and the cemetery were shallow and did not leave 
pit outlines. Some of the burials were covered with 
as litde as four to five inches of soil. For the 
sample of the mound burials that were not in 
pits, the depth at which the burials were interred 
ranged from 10 to 30 inches below the mound 
surface and averaged 18.4 inches. Few graves 
left discernible pits: two (Nos. 3 and 8 and No. 
49) were associated with the mound and one 
(No. 15) was associated with the pre-mound cem- 
etery. These pits were about 2.5 to 4.5 feet deep. 
The two associated with the mound went down 
30 inches and 54 inches below the surface respec- 
tively, and the pre-mound grave went down 32 
inches below the original surface. All the pre- 
mound burials were intrusive, but in the case of 
the mound burials it was not always possible to 
tell whether the burials were really intrusive or 
inclusive. Both procedures may have been rep- 
resented. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 






Humus 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Gravel 


8 Dark Brown Loam 














~~~ 


Clay 



Ash a Charcoal 



IDEALIZED DRAWING OF THE GENTLEMAN FARM MOUND 

WITH SECTION REMOVED EXPOSING STRATIGRAPHY 



(Fig. 3 ) Idealized drawing of the Gentleman Farm Mound. 

VITAL STATISTICS 

The age and sex identification of the burials, 
which appears in the Appendix, is that of Georg 
K. Neumann. Thirty-eight of the original total 
of 48 burials were available for study. Of these, 
nine were infants and children under 12 years 
of age, and one was fetal. Seven burials fell in- 
to the adolescent class between 12 and 20 years 
old, and 22 were found to be adults aged 21 
and over. All of the adolescent burials were ideni- 
fled as females, whereas the adult burials were 
evenly divided between male ( 12 ) and female( 10). 
An additional two adult burials or older immature 
individuals were not available for study. 

The association of the adolescent class with 
females in this sample represents an abnormal 
situation in which the youngest age estimate of 
i male is 23, followed by two estimated at 25 
pears old. This distribution is, however, paral- 
eled with the age distribution of males in an 
[roquoian ossuary (Churcher and Kenyon 1960). 
rhose individuals aged 12 and over are classi- 
Ied as sociological adults and are grouped with 
he skeletal adults in the following analysis of the 
mrials. 



BURIAL POSITION 
Most of the skeletons were interred in a semi- 
lexed position (Tables 2, 3; Figs. 4, 5). Of the 
!1 burials in this position nine were sufficiently in- 
act to be broken down into nine classes based on 
tie disposition of the trunk, legs, and arms (Table 
>). The modal position (14 out of 21) was inter- 



ment on the back with the legs drawn part way 
up towards the chest cavity (classes A to E; Fig. 
5 a, Frontispiece). Usually the legs were found 
fallen to either side of the body with the knees not 
extending above the level of the pelvis, and this 
is the semi-flexed position most frequently identi- 
fied in the literature. But three semi-flexed burials 
(Nos. 18, 26, 40) which had their legs sticking 
up or collapsed onto the ribs were found on then- 
backs with their arms in positions usually as- 
sociated with semi-flexure of the legs. There were 
six classes of arm position represented in the semi- 
flexed burials (Table 3). Nine were found with 
their arms flexed and with one or both hands 
placed near the face; this was not true in ten 
instances. Atypical positions were represented by 
burials lying on the chest or side. In two in- 
stances the body was found lying on its chest and 
in three the body was on either the right or left 
side. Four of the atypical burials were in multiple 
interments: two were found together with three 
small children and one was with a pile burial. 
Two individuals in the multiple burials were in- 
terred with the arms extended away from the body 
(Semi-flexed G, I), and with the exception of 
No. 20, all had one or more unusual posture 
features. 

Fully extended and flexed burials (Fig. 5c,e; 
Frontispiece) were found in small but equal quan- 
tities (Tables 1,2,3). In contrast to the predom- 
inance of these articulated burials were the few 
disarticulated remains that were found either as- 
sociated with articulated burials or interred sep- 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 




• z/ Map of the Burials 

from Gentleman Farm 

^ indicates disturbed area 
•''") indicates pit outline 



( Fig. 4) Map of the burials from Gentl 



arately. The two firmly established secondary 
burials were adults interred with an articulated 
burial (Table 4), whereas the disarticulated or 
fragmentary infant and child burials occurred 
together with articulated burials (Nos. 2A, 32, 
47A) or separately (Nos. 5, 11, 30, 34, 42). 
A similar number of infants and children were 
recovered in articulated condition (Table 1). The 
two adult disarticulated burials were males and 
were interred with adults of both sexes. One was 
a pile burial (Fig. 5d), which differs from a 
bundle burial in having most ol the skeleton 
represented, including the skull, rather than con- 
sisting solely of the long bones. The other con- 
sisted of a skull fragment that was recovered 



with a burial (No. 19) without being noticed. 
The other disarticulated adult burials were evi- 
dently disturbed articulated burials. 

The bulk of the burials were articulated and 
presumably primary interments. Only a small 
number of secondary burials, on the other hand, 
were found even if all the spare bones and the 
flexed burials are grouped with the definitely dis- 
articulated burials. The pile burial was undoubt- 
edly a secondary interment, but the tightly flexed 
burials were more difficult to interpret. It has 
been customary to regard them as primary bur- 
ials; but since they are rarely associated with 
grave goods (see below), it is quite likely that 
they were burials that had first hung in a sack 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 




REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



before final interment without much disturbance 
to the articulation. Hagen (1952:45) and Bauxar 
(1953) have placed the same interpretation on 
flexed burials. It is relevant to note that Hoyme 
and Bass (1962:386-7) point out that the tightly 
flexed burials in Southern Virginia were probably 
secondary burials in which the flesh had been par- 
tially removed. 

Some of the primary burials seemed to have 
been exposed between the time they were interred 
and the time they were covered (Table 2). At 
least two of the burials exhibited evidence of ad- 
vanced decomposition before the grave was closed. 
One extended burial (No. 33, Fig. 5e) resembled 
an historic burial from the Zimmerman site in 
that its toes had fallen back onto its feet (Brown 
1961:63-65). Another (No. 18) had a completely 
slack jaw. This phenomenon is associated with 
a common form of burial in historic times that 
involved enclosure within a primary grave with 
a shed, a crib, or simply a roof (Bushnell 1920, 



1927:3, 14, 64; Pi. 2,3,24a; White 1959). Small 
gabled lean-to's were placed over the open graves 
of the seventeenth century Iliniwek (Pease 
and Werner 1934:357-358). Such a shed is pic- 
tured in the idealized drawing of the mound in 
Figure 3. In the Southeast this procedure was a 
phase in the preparation of the body before in- 
terment in a mortuary house (MacLeod 1927). 
Whether the Gentleman Farm burial practices in- 
clude mortuary storage for some of the burials 
cannot be determined from the archaeological 
evidence, although there are forms of treatment 
of the dead resulting in skull and bundle or pik 
burials, which in the Southeast are often assoc- 
iated with mortuary house storage of individuals 
of certain important statuses. The associations 
of certain positions with other grave and burial 
attributes can be noted. All the extended burials 
were women and children, and burial positions 
with irregular positions in the trunk were found 
only among women (Semi-flexed F, G, H, I). 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



LOCATION. POSITION. OSTEOLOGY, AND ASSOCIATION OKTIII 
IHIRIALSKKOMTIIKCKNri.KMAN FARM MOUND 



Stage 



N< 



Sox 



Age 



ADULTS AND JUVENILES 

3 Female 32 Semi-flexed H 



Semi-flexed A 



Semi-flexed D 



Female 



Extended A 



CHILDREN AND INFANTS 
5 - Fetal? 



11 



Infant 



Child 



Child 



ca.2-2 1/2 



Infant 



Associations and Special Ht 



N-S, head N and Two stones placed over the body, skull resting 
lacing E. on an associated bundle burial (No. 8). Flint 

chips in grave. 



NE-SW 



NW-SE, head SE 
and facing up. 



Associated with Burial No. 3. 
An unworked shell on chest. 



Skull missing; may have been buried with 
child burial (No. 32). 



N-S, head S and Burial on left side and covered with rock; an 
facing W. Adams tradition jar ( P 114) located against 

back; shell spoon in jar. 



N-S, head S and 
facing E. 



Remains of second individual found with stored 
skeletal remains. 



N-S, head S and 
facing up. 



A shell spoon (Type lib) in the mouth of a 
Langford Noded vessel, (p86), located at the 
left of skull; two copper ear-disk facings lo- 
cated at the ear regions. 



NE-SW, head SW A shell spoon (Type Ila; Fig. 13E) between 
and facing E. the head and a Langford Plain pot (p99) at 

the right shoulder. 



NW-SE, head N 
and facing SW. 



Burial on right side. 



NE-SW, head N Burial not tightly flexed. Large flat stones un- 
and facing SE. der the body possibly part of the burial; a 

skull (No. 49A) found on leg, apparently not 

investigated further. 



Disturbed, skull badly crushed. 



Skeleton in poor condition; a small Langford 
Trailed pot (p 94a) found next to back. 



Skull only; may have been buried with No. 13. 



Skull only. 



10 REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS 

TABLE 1 (Continued) 


ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM No. 12 


Stage 


No. 


Sex 


Age 


Position 


Orientation 


Associations and Special Remarks 




ADULTS AND JUVENILES 

2 Female 13 


Extended B 


N-S, head S and 
facing SE. 


Shell spoon (Type Ila; Fig. 13C) at right o 
head; nut-cracking stone next to a Langfort 
Trailed pot ( pl38) at the right elbow. 




2A 










Fetus identified among skeletal remains. 




6 




Adult 


Semi-flexed 


NE-SW,head?SW 






7 


Male 


27 


Semi-flexed B 


N-S, head S and 
facing E. 






10 


Female 


59 


Semi-flexed I 


N-S, head S and 
facing W. 


The uppermost burial in a closely packed fam 
ily ( ?) group including burials 36, 37, 38, and 
39. All buried on their left sides. 




16 


Male 


23 


Semi-flexed A 


NW-SE, head SE 
and facing NE. 


A shell spoon (Type III; Fig. 13A) at left pel 
vis; two deer jaw sickles, one at the neck am 
the other at the right side; a thin sliver of she! 
ornament directly beneath the skull; and a Lang 
ford Trailed vessel (p66) at the left elbow 


C/3 


18 


Female 


27 


Semi-flexed D 


E-W, head W and 
facing S. 


A shell at left shoulder. 


< 

K 

03 


25 


Female 


27 


Semi-flexed B 


E-W, head W and 
facing up. 


A shell spoon (Type lib; Fig. 13F) in the bor 
torn of a Langford JVoded pot (p97) at th 
leftside of the skull. 


Q 
Z 


26 


Female 


28 


Semi-flexed D 


E-W, head W and 
facing up. 




o 


31 


Male 


70 


Semi-flexed A 


NW-SE, head SE 
and facing W. 


A shell-tempered, undecorated and cordmarke 
pot ( plOl ) to left and in front of face. 




33 


Female 


23 


Extended A 


NE-SW, head S 
and facing up. 


A shell spoon in a Langford Noded pot(pll2 
at the left of the head; a sheepshead bone b 
the right hand. 




35 


Female 


19 


Semi-flexed E 


E-W, head W and 
facing up. 


An unworked shell located on the left hip 




36 


Female 


40 


Semi-flexed F 


N-S, head S and 
facing W. 






40 


Female 


20 


Semi-flexed C 


NW-SE, head NW 
and facing S. 






41 


Female 


12 


Semi-flexed 


NW-SE, head N 
and facing NE. 






43 


Female 


ca. 12 






Bones were scattered; a shell spoon (Type II; 
Fig. 13B) found in a Langford Plain p< 
( pl04) located to the left of the skull. 




44 


Male 


47 


Semi-flexed D 


SW-NE, head W 
and facing up. 






46 


Male 


37 


Flexed 


N-S, head N and 
facing W. 


Burial not tighdy flexed. 

-= 



'ABLE 1 (Concluded) 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



No. 



Sex 



Age 



Position 



CHILDREN AND INFANTS 

15 Female 5 Extended A 



30 



38 



47A 



Infant 22 mos. 



Infant 2 1/2 Flexed i 



Infant 



Flexed? 



Infant 22 mos. Flexed i 



42 Infant 



47 Infant (F) 2 



Extended A 



Child 



Child (F) 6 



Semi-flexed A 



Adult 



Adult 



Adult 



Male 



Semi-flexed E 



I 1 



Female 



Semi-flexed H 



Female 35 



Semi-flexed G 



Nos. 23, 24, and 28 not used. 



Orientation 



Associations and Special Remarks 



N-S, head N and 
facing W. 



N-S, head S. 



Burials 37, 38, 39 and associated with burials 
10 and 36. 



N-S, head S. 



N-S, head S. 



Skull only; a shell spoon found m* Langford 
Trailed pot ( P 102) located to the left of the 
skull. 



N-S, head S and Mass of red rock associated, 
facing up. 



Skull only, under skull of No. 47. 



NW-SE, head N 
and facing up. 



Disturbed 



Femora only in recent disturbance; one shell 
spoon (Type la; Fig. lid) found nearby. 



Disturbed 



E-W, head W and Buried with No. 21; a shell at the right elbow 
tacing up. ° 



N-S, head S and Langford Bold pot (pll5) at the right and in 
tacmg K. front of the face; an unworked ( ?) shell next 

to the right of the pot; nine shell disk beads 

under the skull. 



E-W, head W and Buried on the left side with face down and un- 
facing down. der Burial No. 17; two pots, a Langford Trail- 

ed (p94) at the back of the neck and another 
pot ( ?) in front of the face; a shell spoon in the 
mouth of latter pot; a shell pendant somewhere 
near body. 



12 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 

TABLE 2 
DISPOSITION OF THE ARTICULATED BURIALS 



No. 12 



Legs 



Head 



Evidence of 
Decomposition 



Extended and parallel to body 
axis. 



Right extended and parallel On right side; 
to body; left flexed, elbow to face right, 
left, hand at stomach. 



Loosely flexed together; right 
knee at base of pelvic zone. Left 
knee at top of pelvic zone; knees 
to front; feet together and c. 1.5' 
below pelvis. 



Loosely flexed in front of 
body; hands in front of face, 
left hand about twice as far 
away as right. 



Face down and 
partly to the left. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
to right and at base of pelvic 
zone; feet together and over 1' 
below pelvis. 



(Bones missing above 4th 
lumbar vertebra, otherwise 
articulated.) 



back, tilted Flexed together; knees to right 
to right. and below base of pelvic zone; 

feet together and c. 6" below 

pelvis. 



Upper arms parallel to 
body; left forearm across 
and nearly perpendicular to 
vertebrae; right forearm 
slighdy bent towards body, 
with fingers on pelvis; left 
hand under right arm. 



On right side; 
face down and 
to right. 



(missing) 



Loosely flexed together, 
hands missing. 



left side Loosely flexed together; knees 

in front (left) and below base 
of pelvic zone; feet together and 
c. 6" below pelvis. 



Extended; right out to front, 
c. 1' from pelvis; left parallel 
to body, hand at pelvis. 



On left side; 
face to front. 



Loosely flexed, knees below base 
of pelvic zone, to right; left cros- 
ses and is higher than right; feet 
together and 6" from pelvis. 



Extended, parallel to body; 
hands by pelvis. 



On back; face 
up. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
to right and at base of pelvic 
zone; feet together and c. 1' be- 
low pelvis. 



Left upper arm parallel to 
body; remainder missing. 



(Missing) 



Disturbed and in 
poor condition. 



14 leftside Tighdy flexed together; knees 

front (left) and at upper chest 
zone; feet together and in front 
of pelvis. 



Tighdy flexed; elbows in 
front and near knees; hands 
missing. 



On left side; 
face to front. 



Extended and parallel to axis 
of bodv. 



Extended and parallel to ax- 
is of body. 



On right side, 
face to right. 



Feet shifted upward 
along lower legs. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
left and below pelvic zone; feet 
together and 1' below pelvis. 



Extended and parallel to ax- 
is of body; hands by pelvis. 



On back; face 
tilted to right. 



Right tightly flexed and paral- 
lel to axis of body; left loosely 
flexed, knee to left and below 
base of pelvic zone; feet together 
and just below right side of pel- 



Right tighdy flexed and par- 
allel to axis of body; left 
loosely flexed, elbow to right; 
hands together and beneath 
jaw. (Right limbs on top of 
No. 21.) 



On back; face 
up and tilted 
to left. 



Jaw slack. 



1967 

TABLE 2 (Continued) 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



13 



Trunk 



Tightly flexed together; knees 
to left and above pelvic zone; 
feet together and just below pel- 
vis. 



Evidence of 
Decomposition 



Flexed together; knees to right 
and below base of pelvic zone; 
feet together and c. 6" below 
pelvis. 



Flexed with upper arms par- 
allel to body axis; left fore- 
arm obliquely across trunk; 
right forearm to right with 
hand pointing to face. 

Extended and parallel to ax- 
is of body. Right forearm 
and hand missing; left hand 
beside pelvis. 



On right side; 
face slightly to 
right. 



On right side; 
face right and 
slighdy down- 
ward. 



right side Right flexed, knee to front at 

base of chest zone, foot just be- 
low pelvis; left loosely flexed, 
knee at the base of pelvic zone; 
foot c. 6" below pelvis. 



Flexed to front( right); hands 
folded back towards face. 



On right side; 
face right. 



Loosely flexed; knees extended 
below and lightly right of body 
axis; lower legs not together; 
feet missing. 



Extended to right; extremi- 
ties of forearms out c. 1' 
from body. 



Face down. 



(missing) 



Right arm extended; remain- 
der uncertainly disposed be- 
cause missing. 



On left side; 
face left. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
to right and below base of pel- 
vic zone; knees slightly raised 
above body; feet together and 
c. 1' below and to left of pelvis. 



Flexed; upper arms diverge 
slighdy outward from the 
parallel; right forearm 
across and nearly perpendic- 
ular to body axis; left fore- 
arm beneath pelvis. 



On base; face 
slightly up- 
ward and to 
left. 



Tightly flexed together; knees 
to right, above level of body, 
and at base of pelvic zone; feet 
together and just below pelvis. 



Right tighdy flexed, upper 
arm and forearm parallel 
with body axis, hand under 
jaw; left upper arm parallel 
with body axis, forearm 
across and perpendicular to 
vertebrae. 



On back; face 
slightly up- 
ward and to 
right. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
slighdy left to body axis; upper 
legs nearly parallel to body axis; 
feet together and c. 1' to right 
ofpelvis. 



Flexed; right elbow over ver- 
tebrae and hand to left of 
face; left elbow out to left and 
hand over vertebrae and un- 
der right elbow. 



On back; face 
up- 



Extended and parallel to body 
axis. 



Neck broken; jaw 
slack. 



Toes disarticulated? 
(JAB). 



Jaw displaced. 



Extended and nearly paral- 
lel to body axis; hands near 
but turned away from pelvis. 



On back; face 
slighdy right. 



Toes disturbed. 



Right tighdy flexed to left, knee 
raised above body and at base 
of pelvic zone; left flexed to left, 
knee raised above body and be- 
low base of pelvic zone; feet to- 
gether and just below right side 
ofpelvis. 



Extended; right upper arm 
parallel to body, forearm 
across vertebrae and hand 
at center of pelvis; left upper 
arm slighdy to the left, and 
hand under legs. 



On base; face 
h o rizonta 1 
and slighdy to 
left. 



14 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



TABLE 2 (Concluded) 



44 back, 

slightly to 
right 



Evidence of 
Decomposition 



Extended; right parallel to body; Extended; elbows pointing On back; face Jaw slack; toes dis- 
left slightly flexed to left. slighdy outward; hands at horizontal, articulated, 

pelvis. tilted to right. 



Loosely flexed together?; knees 
to right; feet together and 1 
below pelvis. 



Flexed; right back of hand 
under jaw, left hand by 
shoulder. 



On back; face 
horizontal. 



Loosely flexed; knees to right 
and below the base of pelvic 
zone; right leg across left; feet 
together c. 6" below left ofpelvis. 



Flexed; right hand in front 
of face; left arm beneath body 
and hand in front of face. 



On left side; 
face down and 
right. 



(Crushed together, appear to be in anatomical order) 



Tighdy flexed together; knees 
slighdy to right, above body 
and at base of chest zone; feet 
together, just below the pelvis 
and pointing inward to the body 



left side Right loosely flexed to right of 

twisted. pelvis and left of body; left tight- 

ly flexed; left beneath right; 
knees below base of pelvic zone; 
feet together and c. 6" below 
pelvis. 



Right flexed to right, knee be- 
low base of pelvic zone; left flex- 
ed to right, knee at pelvic zone; 
feet together and c. 6" below 
pelvis. 



Flexed; upper arms parallel 
to body axis; forearms 
across body and perpendicu- 
lar to vertebrae; forearm 
parallel; right hand at left 
side, left hand at right side. 



On back; face 
h o rizonta 1 
and pardy to 
right. 



Right missing; left extended 
and parallel to body, hand 
under pelvis. 



On left side; 
face left and 
slighdy to feet. 



Flexed; upper arms parallel 
to body; right forearm tight- 
ly flexed, hand at face; left 
forearm across body and 
perpendicular to vertebrae, 
hand at left knee. 



On right side; 
face right and 
slightly to- 
wards feet. 



ight side Tightly flexed together; knees 

at front at base of chest zone; 
feet (missing) probably together 
and just below pelvis. 



46 right side 



Tighdy flexed; right knee at base 
of chest zone, foot next to and 
right of pelvis; left knee at pel- 
vic zone, foot just below pelvis. 



Extended and parallel to body 
axis (poor condition). 



Flexed together; elbows to 
front near knees; hands un- 
der head. 



Flexed, elbows near chest; 
forearms to right; hands 
clasped together and point- 
ing back towards face. 



On right side; 
face right. 



On right side; 
face right and 
slighdy to feet. 



Right extended and parallel 
to body, hand missing; left 
missing. 



On base; face 
horizontal. 



Loosely flexed together; knees 
to left and below base of pelvic 
zone; feet missing. 



Extended; point slightly 
away from body; hands 
missing. 



On back; face 
partly left. 



Loosely flexed; knees to left and 
above top of pelvic zone; feet 
togedier and c. 1' below and to 
left of pelvis. 



Flexed to front; hands to- 
gether in front of face. 



On left side; 
face left. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 

TABLE 3 

CLASSES OF ARTICULATED BURIALS 



L5 









Disposition of the Arms 




~ : 


Disposition of 
the trunk and 
legs. 


Extended and 
parallel to 
body. 


One extended 
and parallel to 
body; other 
flexed and 
lying across 
body. 


Bodi flexed and 
lying across 
body. 


Both flexed; 
one lying 
across body, 
other with 
hand near face. 


Both flexed 
with hands 
near face. 


Both extended 
perpendicularly 
away from 
body. 


EXTENDED 
Trunk on back, 
legs extended 
and parallel to 
body. 


A 

Nos. 15, 29, 

33,47 


B 

No. 2 










SEMI-FLEXED 
Trunk on back, 
legs flexed. 


A 

Nos. 12, 16, 

19,31,48 


B 

Nos. 7, 25 


C 
No. 40 


D 

Nos. 18, 26, 

27,44 


E 

Nos. 17, 35 




SEMI-FLEXED 
Trunk on chest, 
legs loosely 
flexed. 










F 
No. 36 


G 

No. 21 


SEMI-FLEXED 
Trunk on side, 
legs loosely 
flexed. 










H 

Nos. 3, 20 


I 
No. 10 


FLEXED 
Trunk on side, 
legs tighdy 
flexed, knees 
above pelvic 
zone. 










Nos. 14, 45, 
46,49 




















L6 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



TABLE 4 
LIST OF DISARTICULATED REMAINS 



DISTURBED 

1 Fragmentary long bones, in disturbed area. 

4 Two femora together; other parts probably removed 
by relic hunters. 

43 Scattered skull cap, humerus, femur. 

SECONDARY BURIAL 

8 Pile of disarticulated remains, most of skeleton repre- 
sented: skull, long bones, pelvis, ribs. 
19A Additional skull cap. 

INFANT AND CHILD BURIALS 
2A Fetus identified with No. 2. 

5 Infant, possibly fetal, disposition not recorded. 
11 Skull, infant. 

30 Skull and 1 wing of pelvis; child, age 22 months. 

32 Skull, infant, with No. 13. 

34 Skull fragment, infant. 

42 Skull, infant, intact and resting on base. 

47A Skull (child), under No. 47 skull. 



BURIAL ORIENTATION 
The distribution of the trunk orientations of 
the articulated burials was not random, and an 
inspection of Table 5 shows that in this sample 
there was a high proportion (34%) of orienta- 
tion along a north-south axis with the head to 
the south. The reverse, with head north, was 
second (23%). The east-west orientation with the 
head to the west was third (20%), and was as- 
sociated only with the semi-flexed burials. Bur- 
ials heading towards the east and northeast were 
entirely lacking in this sample. This general rank- 
ing of burial orientations occurs in other Mis- 
sissippian period mounds and cemeteries in the 
Illinois Valley, such as Crable (Smith 1951:12- 
17), Emmons (Morse, Morse, andEmmonsl961: 
125) and probably Morton P14 (Cole and Deu- 
el 1937:77). However, there are indications that 
there is greater complexity underlying the pat- 
terns of orientation. First, at the Big East and 
Big West mounds at Fisher there seems to have 
been a larger proportion of east-west orientation 
with the head west (Langford 1927), although 
the fact that the four occupational zones composing 
the mound, one of which is pre-Mississippian, 
were not segregated lends uncertainty to any con- 
clusions drawn from these data. Second, analysis 
of the Gentleman Farm material shows that there 



was a dual division separating the north and 
south represented in terms of differences in be- 
havior. When we turn to the ethnological sources, 
it appears that the prescribed orientation was 
east-west with the head to the west ( Wheeler-Voe- 
gelin 1944:349). This orientation was found in 
the sample from one historic component at Zim- 
merman, where the burials of this component 
were oriented east-west with the head to the west 
(Brown 1961:63-67). Whether the orientation 
found in the prehistoric and late historic periods 
are to be interpreted as truly different or differ- 
ent because of sampling or other factors remains 
to be determined. 

Associations of orientation with sex show that 
males were largely oriented south and southeast 
in this sample (Table 5). The one exception was 
the multiple burial (Nos. 17, 21) that embodied 
a large number of irregularities and can be char- 
acterized as a reversal of the modal burial prac- 
tices at the site. On the other hand, all the orien- 
tations in the sample were represented among the 
female burials. 

BURIAL STRATIGRAPHY 
A stratigraphic separation of the burials is 
presented in Table 1. The level of origin of all 
except a few of the graves could be determined 
from the data sheets, which were the main source 
of information in the absence of wall profiles over 
most of the trenches. The sheets recorded the 
type of soil above the burial, the absolute depth, 
the relative depth below the surface, and the pre- 
sence or absence of an intrusive pit. Photographs 
of the burials supplemented the notes. No ap- 
parent differences in cultural associations, inter- 
ment procedures, or social behavior have shown 
up in the separation of the burials by level, so 
it seems most likely that the mound was erected 
over a relatively short period of time. 

ASSOCIATIONS 
Nineteen of the burials had associated mater- 
ial. With thirteen were associated fourteen whole 
or restorable pots. Ten of the burials had whole 
vessels and worked shell spoons. Three vessels 
were not associated with spoons; one of them was 
the sole shell-tempered pot. Seven of the spoons 
were within the vessels while the other three were 
between the vessel and the skull. There were at 
least two cases where the spoon was clearly ob- 
served in the mouth of the pot, thus indicating 



L967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



17 



TABLE 5 



Direction 


Female 

Adults 


Male 
Adults 


Infants and 

Children 


Adults 


Totals 


B N 
c -i NW 

Q NE 


4 

1 


1 


2 


1 


8 


i -s sw 

O > Q 

Q SE 


5 
2 
4 


2 

4 
3 


4 


1 


7 
3 
12 
3 


? 


1 




Totals 


17 


10 


6 


2 


35 


cf. Table 2 










===== 



Direction 



W 

SW 

S 

SE 



TABLE 6 

^mTSSSS 011 MUSSEL SHELL SP °° NS ACCORDING 
TO THE DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS OF SEX AND AGE GROUPS. 



Female 
Adults 



Male 
Adults 



Infants and 
Children 



'This figure includes a burial with a shell placed on the chest (No. 12) 
+ Ihis figure includes an infant skull burial (No. 42). 



that the pot was filled with food or other sub- 
stance at the time of the burial. Besides pots and 
spoons, grave goods were made up also of per- 
sonal ornaments and domestic articles. The latter 
two categories included a pair of copper ear-disk 
facings, a string of ten shell disk beads, a shell 
hair ornament, a shell pendant, unworked shells, 
a nut-cracking stone, two deer jaw sickles, a 
sheepshead bone, a mass of red rock and per- 
haps some Hint chips. There is no record of the 
location of these chips, so it is possible that they 
were accidently included in the fill. They have 



been recorded in Orr Focus burials (McKern 
1945). 

Grave goods can be divided into burial fur- 
niture and personal ornaments. The category of 
burial furniture includes items placed with the 
corpse such as pots, spoons, sickles, and the 
sheepshead bone. The personal ornaments con- 
sist of ear-disk facings, beads, and pendants. The 
classification of the unworked shell and red rock 
cannot be made on the basis of the notes. Both 
burial furniture and personal grave goods were 
generally found near the head of the corpse al- 



18 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



though a few items were placed around the trunk. 
Ten of the pots were close to the head; the ear- 
disks were beside the ears; the deer jaw sickles 
were next to the upper body; and the nut-crack- 
ing stone and the mass of red rock were near 
the head. The string of disk beads was at the 
back of the head. The unworked shell was in a 
variety of locations: at the hip, on the chest, or 
near the neck. The sheepshead bone was found 
at the hand. 

Pots were frequently found with either worked 
or unworked shells. Both are probably spoons 
considering their context, and in the tabulations 
below the unworked valves are included with the 
modified shell spoon whether associated with a 
vessel or not. However, this step has been taken 
only for the purposes of clear analysis since only 
the modified valves can confidently be identified 
as spoons on the basis of their formal attributes. 
The incomplete correlation of vessels and shell 
valves may indicate the presence of perishable 
vessels and spoons at the sides of the interments. 
This appears all the more likely in view of the 
finding of charred wooden bowls as well as cer- 
amic vessels as grave goods at the Galley Pond 
mortuary house (Binford 1964). The occurrence 
of vessels and/or mussel valves has been tallied 
with respect to association with graves oi dif- 
ferent orientation and the burial of each sex 

(Table 6). 

Grave goods in general and burial furniture 
in particular seem to have been associated most 
characteristically with the semi-flexed and extend- 
ed burials, which were probably primary inhu- 
mations. The flexed, bundle, pile and skull bur- 
ials, which probably constituted the secondary 
burials, had few grave goods; in fact, they were 
restricted to an unworked shell and two pots and 
associated shell spoons. The flexed burial( No. 14) 
that contained one of the pots and shell spoons 
is unusual, since the pot not only belongs to the 
Adams Tradition (Chap. IV) but was located 
against the back. This burial was also covered 
with stones (Fig. 5c), a type of burial cover found 
on only one other burial (No. 3), one having 
the same orientation. A child skull burial con- 
tained the other pot and spoon. 



STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF THE BURIALS 

It might seem from the above description of 

the burial associations that a general unifying 



regularity in the mortuary behavior is lacking. 
However, if instead of looking at simple pro- 
portions, the mutual associations among suites 
of mutually exclusive categories and different at- 
tributes are examined, a different understanding 
of the burial behavior emerges. In the analysis 
of the Gentleman Farm materials, different cate- 
gories were systematically explored and examined 
for their potentialities in exhibiting clear segre- 
gation and statistically significant association with 
respect to other categories. The age groups and 
sex affiliation proved to show little clear behavior. 
It was not until the artifactual associations were 
examined in terms of the burial orientations that 
clear behavior and segregation could be estab- 
lished. It was on the basis of this initial analysis 
that an ordering of the behavior represented in 
the sample became possible. It is the reasoning 
of this paper that the best segregation of behav- 
ioral sectors provides the primary arrangement 
to which the others can be placed in dependent 
position. In this analysis the point of departure 
is provided by the association of the presence or 
absence of ceramic vessels and/or mussel shell 
spoons with the orientation of the burials. Bur- 
ials with certain orientations were entirely lacking 
in these artifacts, and the cardinal directions 
making up this category comprised half of the 
compass bearings between the northwest and east, 
which can be designated the northern division 
(viz., NW, N, NE, and E). A test of significance , 
using Chi-square with Yates' correction for small 
numbers (Siegel 1956:64-67) showed the proba- ' 
bility of this arrangement occurring by chance 
as less than one in one hundred (Table 7). The 
division into north and south groups was not 
equally represented since there were twice as many 
burials in the south as in the north. In fact, cer- 
tain northern orientations were lacking in this 
sample. This north-south division allows for fur- 
ther correlative ordering among those attributes 
occurring in small frequency and for which sig- 
nificance of association could not be made. The 
northern division burials included the female 
adults interred with an adult male pile burial and 
a fragmentary child burial, whereas in the south- 
ern division, each adult male was accompanied 
by an adult male skull. The burials that can be 
interpreted as representing individuals differen- 
tiated in rank are two adult male burials of the 
southern division, one found with copper ear- 
spool facings, the other possibly exhibiting cran- 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



[9 



ASSOCIATION OF VESSELS AND/OR MUSSEL SHELL SPOONS WITH NORTH AND SOUTH 
=BB _ DIVISIONS AMONG COMPLETE BURIALS 



North Division 
South Division 



With vessels and/or 
spoons 



x2(Yatescorr.)= 9.333 



Without vessels 
or spoons 



P>.01 



ial deformation. Two other male burials of this 
division were associated with exotic vessels; this 
feature indicates that the treatment of certain males 
entails a contribution derived from a territory 
larger than the resident community. It was de- 
termined early in the analysis that burial orien- 
tation and the association with vessels and spoons 
largely crosscut burial position, age group and 
sex (Tables 5,6). A test was performed in which 
the association between the presence or absence 
of grave goods was examined with respect to 
two categories of burial position that may have 
reflected real interment differences. One comprised 
the extended and semi-flexed burials which can 
be regarded as primary interments; the other was 
made up of the flexed and bundle burials which 
may be regarded as secondary. The calculation 
did not include the case of the child skull burial. 
Using the Fisher Exact Probability test (Siegel 
1956:96-104) a probability of as great as .34 
(i.e., one out of three chances) was calculated for 



the distribution of grave goods among the cate- 
gories of burial positions being due to chance 
alone. Rather than such an association obtaining, 
it is more likely that there is an association of 
extended adult burials with the south orientation 
and flexed adult burials with the north orien- 
tation. Other segregations could occur by chance. 
It remains that the age profile is scarcely affected 
by the division so there is every reason to posit 
that the orientation differences were those con- 
tained within the social community, whatever its 
dimensions. One of the more obvious identifi- 
cations with social units that can be made is with 
moieties or other dual divisions that were well 
represented in the Midwest in the historic period. 
In at least one ethnography, membership in supra- 
clan social divisions (Wheeler-Voegelin 1944) en- 
tailed different burial practices for each tribal 
division. At Gentleman Farm such a division is 
an important element in the structure of mortuary 
behavior. 



CHAPTER III 



THE GENTLEMAN FARM VILLAGE 



An occupation extended west of the mound for 
about 300 feet, north and northwest for 200 feet 
to the river bank, and south for at least 200 feet. 
To the southeast sherds and flint chips were also 
found on the surface of a low ridge four or five 
hundred feet from the burial mound. The eastern 
extent seemed to stop short of the burial mound 
since excavation along the main axis of the grid 
was sterile. 

Preliminary tests in the village area failed to 
locate any features, and only after Sara J. Tuck- 
er's thorough search for the area of greatest 
sherd concentration was there any success in lo- 
cating features and artifacts. In this section there 
were four storage pits, a pit filled with ash and 
two pits filled with broken stone (Fig. 6). No 
house structures were located, but the humus layer 
in this area was so heavy that it was not pos- 
sible to locate post holes. The occupational level 
was very close to the present ground surface 
and apparently was contained entirely within the 
plow zone. 

The storage pits, all of which apparently orig- 
inated in the plow zone, contained abundant ma- 
terial. They had straight or in-sloping walls and 
rounded bottoms. They varied in diameter from 
18" to 36" and extended from 12" to 18" below 
the bottom of the plow line, which is within six 
inches of the surface. Those pits containing bro- 
ken stone or ash were smaller and shallower 
than the storage pits. Within the storage pits 
were shells, animal bones, broken stone, char- 
coal, pottery and other artifacts. Those pits which 
contained broken stone had nothing else in them, 
and it is likely that they were roasting pits, large 
examples of which were found in the historic 
components of the Zimmerman Site (Brown 
1961:26,28). 

More than one occupation is represented in 
the village area. A main component is assoc- 
iated with the burial mound or the pre-mound 
cemetery. The contemporaneity of these features 
is indicated by the great similarity of the relative 
frequencies of pottery types from the occupation 
and the mound fill (Table 12). In addition to the 
main occupation there is the evidence of stemmed 
and notched points to indicate an early occupation 
and the evidence of the native gunflints to indi- 
cate a later, early historic occupation (Chap. V). 
This site does not appear to have been the prin- 



® 



* ®~°- 



I I 



© 



Features in the Northwest 
Test Area of Ls v l 

® indicates storage pits. 

<§) indicates stone filled pits, 

^ indicates ash pit. 

( Fig. 6) Features in the Northwest Test Area. 



cipal occupation associated with the mound or 
cemetery because of its small size, and because 
such tools as manos and milling stones are ab- 
sent from the collection. It was probably a spe- 
cialized occupation and most of the village was 
located elsewhere. There are indications at the 
present time that the village was dispersed over 
the triangle of land formed by the river and the 
oxbow channel to the south. 



20 



CHAPTER IV 



POTTERY 



LANGFORD CERAMIC SERIES 
The Langford Ceramic Series designates a se- 
ries of pottery vessels defined by the combination 
of particular attributes of temper, vessel form, 
rim form, and lip treatment. It comprises essen- 
tially what has been called Langford Ware as 
defined by J.B. Griffin (1943), J. W. Griffin 
(1946, 1948), Allee (1949), Brown (1961), and 
Fenner (1963). The difference lies in the impor- 
tance placed upon attributes derived from com- 
plete or restorable vessels in the ceramic series, 
rather than attributes of paste and temper de- 
rived mainly from a sherd typology based mainly 
on sherds. The series is divided into pottery types, 
most of which have been defined elsewhere in 
their most important attributes. One new type is 
proposed in this study. 

The type material for this series comes from 
the Fisher site and has been described and il- 
lustrated several times (J.B. Griffin 1943; J.W. 
Griffin 1946, 1948; Cutter n.d.; Langford 1927). 
The first formal type descriptions were made by 
J.W. Griffin (1946, 1948) and subsequent class- 
ifications follow his. 

The paste, temper, hardness, texture and color 
of the pots and sherds from Gentleman Farm are 
the same as those from the Zimmerman and Fish- 
er sites. The temper varies considerably in size, 
ranging from extremely fine to large (ca. 2mm.)', 
and is often dense, especially in large heavy 
sherds. The temper is predominantly crushed angu- 
lar, black, crystalline grit, but variations do occur 
that are not known to correlate with differences 
in other attributes (cf. Fowler 1952). Some sherds 
have inclusions of iron oxide. Five of the Gentle- 
man Farm sherds are composed of crushed white 
(quartzitic?) grit. There is apparently considerable 
variation in the composition of the grit, and 
differences in individual sherds can easily take 
place through sampling error. Moreover, macro- 
scopic composition often does not reliably reflect 
the actual composition (Porter 1962). Hence, for 
instance, the difference in temper noted in Brown 
(1961:39, 41) between Langford Cor dmarked 
Upper Mississippi) and Swanson Cordmarked 
(Late Woodland) is not a reliable typological in- 
dicator in the absence of good rimsherds. Before 
paste and temper differences can be used to reflect 
cu tural differences with certainty, technical studies 
will have to be made. 



The sorting of the Langford Series sherds from 
contemporary sherds of Late Woodland style is 
a difficult problem that may find part of its so- 
lution in studies of hardness differences and in 
differences in texture and color. The Langford 
Series tends to have a hard and firm surface in 
contrast to Late Woodland. The color of the 
cores, which vary less than the exterior surfaces, 
is typically "dirty white" to tan or buff. Shades of 
red and black occur less frequently. The frequency 
of colors in the cores of rimsherds near the neck 
is shown in Table 8. In the sample of Langford 
Series pots from Gentleman Farm, all have tan 
or gray cores except two Langford Trailed pots 
(Field Nos. Ls°2, pl38, and p94a), one of which 
is a large miniature pot that is roughly made 
and poorly fired. In contrast, Late Woodland 
cores tend to the red and dark end of the color 
scale (Gillette 1949:48, 70). 

The surface finish is usually either cordmarked 
or smoothed. The sample of cordmarked sherds 
from Gentleman Farm shows that both Z- and 
S-twisted two-ply cords were used on the paddle. 
Most of the cords were heavy and not tightly 
twisted. They were usually well spaced on the 
paddle. A heavily roughened surface is charac- 
teristic of the cordmarked surfaces. One fabric- 
impressed body sherd is referred to this series. 
The smoothed surfaces are a result of smoothing 
over and obliterating the cordmarks left by the 
action of the cord-wrapped paddle. The obliter- 
ation is not always complete and stray cord im- 
pressions are sometimes found on vessels with a 
smooth surface, especially on the bottoms. The 
small number of cordmarked sherds found at 
Gentleman Farm can probably be attributed to 
areas incompletely smoothed. In a case from 
Gentleman Farm (Field No. Ls°2, p99), the pro- 
cess of smoothing was accomplished with an 
instrument that left fine brush marks slanting di- 
agonally down to the left. The smoothing pro- 
cedure may have been responsible for the rough 
sandpaper-like surfaces found on many smoothed 
sherds. It has been suggested by R.L. Hall that 
the surface was smoothed with the aid of water, 
thereby partly washing it away. Other techniques 
resulted in a smoothed surface with a luster. The 
interiors of some vessels are red-filmed, and at 
least one example of a fugitive red interior was 
noted at Gentleman Farm. 



21 



12 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



TABLE 8 
CORE COLOR IN THE NECK REGION OF 102 LANGFORD SERIES RIMS Lsn and Ls°2 



Tan -Orange 



Orange 



Total 



TABLE 1 
FREQUENCIES OF WIDTH OF INCISED AND TRAILED LINES ON THE LANGFORD SERIES L S vl AND Ls°2 









Width of T 


railing and Incising 


in Millimeters* 












1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


16 


Sherds 
Percentage 


5.5 

5% 


26.0 

25% 


25.5 

24% 


34.0 6.5 

32% 6% 


1.5 

1% 


1.0 

1% 


1.0 

1% 


1.0 
1% 


3.0 

2% 


1.0 

1% 



a Mid-way or split measurements are divided between adjacent whole numbers. 



TABLE 10 
ASSOCIATION OF RIMSHERD CROSS SECTION WITH LIP SHAPE IN THE LANGFORD SERIES, Lsn AND Ls°2 











Rimsherd Cross 


Section 


(from 


base to tip) 








Converging . 
Walls 


Straight 
Walls 






Collared 

Walls 


Diverging 
Walls 


Totals 


D. 


Beveled 


outward 


37 


9 






8 





54 


in 


Flat 




24 


13 






4 


1 


42 


J 


Round 




2 


4 












6 


Totals 


63 


26 






12 


1 


102 



The range of decorative motifs as well as the 
mode of execution on the Langford Series have 
been covered in citations above. The Gentleman 
Farm motifs are shown in Figures 8, 9, and 10. 
Both wide and thin line trailing and incising are 
represented as well as curvilinear and rectilinear 
motifs. Punctates made with a reed and arranged 
in a pattern are sometimes found (Fig. 8 c). The 
Gentleman Farm vessels reflect the prevalent pat- 
tern at that period, employing arches, chevrons, 



and meanders. One pot exhibits the rainbow motif 
that is also found at the Savanna (Hall 1962a: Pi. 
57 b) and Crable sites (Smith 1951:P1. 7 k). No 
guilloches are known on any of the Langford 
Series or any other from the Prairie Peninsula 
despite the statement by Brown (1961:35). The 
alleged guilloche consists of small chevrons be- 
tween larger groups of chevrons. Two types have 
been segregated within the decorated class of the 
Langford Series on the basis of presumably dis- 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



2\\ 




(Fig. 7) a, Longford Plain jar; b, a cordmarked, shell-tempered jar. 



tinctive variation. One, Langford Noded, consists 
of vessels with lobing in addition to trailing, and 
the other, Langford Bold, consists of decoration 
in wide-line trailing arranged in vertical lines. 
Langford Series vessel forms appear to be 
limited to large and small wide-mouthed jars. 
The small wide-mouthed jars of about one or 
two quarts capacity were well represented as bur- 
ial furniture. Miniature jars were also found with 
burials. All three were found in the general oc- 
cupation area. The large jars are not as well 
known, but in storage pit No. 3 at Gendeman 
Farm a fragment of one (Field No. Ls^l, p 43) was 
found with an inside neck diameter of seven inch- 
es, an outside shoulder diameter of 12 3/4 inches, 
and an estimated total height of 8 1/2 inches! 
There are a number of indications that the large 
and small jars from Gendeman Farm, as well 
as Fisher and Zimmerman, were used in contact 
with the open fire. Many have darker colors be- 
low the shoulder, and a few of the Gentleman 
Farm pots have soot encrustations and scaled 
surfaces. Several of the pots had developed holes 
that had been mended with a rivet of clay and 
then refired (Field Nos. Ls°2, p99 and pl02). 
In one case the whole bottom had been replaced 
by a patch twice as thick as the rest of the pot. 
These jars were not only used near a fire but 
were probably suspended over it, since they con- 
veniendy possess a functional gripping surface 
in the everted rims and protruding lugs. 

Rims are usually flared and are either high or 
low. Some have a break at the neck, but none are 



distincdy angular. There is a small jar in this 
series with a short rim, rolled lip, and marked 
angular shoulder. Illustrated specimens have been 
found at Forest Home (Fowler 1952), and Oak- 
wood Mound (Skinner 1953: Fig. 5 d, e; 8 h, i). 
The rimsherds illustrated in the Oakwood report 
and presently deposited in the Illinois State Mu- 
seum are figured in the report with the wrong 
orientation. Others are known in collections from 
the Fisher site and the Chicago area (Collection 
of the Field Museum of Natural History). 

Lips are usually undecorated (Brown 1961: 
Fig. 9j; Hall 1962a: PL 40 b), unlike Starved 
Rock Collared where the notching is at the in- 
side of the lip (Hall 1962b), and unlike the shell- 
tempered Upper Mississippian types where the 
notching is both on top and on the outside of 
the Up (cf. Griffin 1943:376). Table 10 shows 
the association of lip form with rim cross section. 
From this table it is apparent that most rims 
are thinned from the neck to the lip and most 
lips flattened and out-sloDing. In the Langford 
Series the edges of the lips are characteristically 
sharp. A few of the rims exhibit a collar of vary- 
ing strength, which seems to be the result of 
poor smoothing of the outside face of the rim 
(Fig. 6 d, 7 b). Rim sections show that, appar- 
ently in order to thicken and strengthen the rim, 
most of the rims were made by folding over the 
thinned edge of the pot rim produced by the pad- 
dle-and-anvil manufacturing process. Appendages 
infrequendy occur on Langford Series pots, and 
when they do, usually occur on the decorated 



24 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 






:i 





1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



2 r > 






26 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



Langford Trailed (Brown 1961:Fig. 8 c). The 
following types have been established from whole 
pots. 

Langford Plain (Illustrated, Fig. 7 a) 

Descriptions can be found in Langford (1927), 
J. W. Griffin (1948), Fowler (1952), Skinner 
(1953), and Brown (1961:30-31). 

Langford Cordmarked 

Descriptions have been published by Lang- 
ford (1927:P1. 12 e, f), J.B. Griffin (1943:277), 
J.W. Griffin (1948), Fowler (1952), and Brown 
(1961:35). No examples of vessels of this type 
were found at the Gentleman Farm site. 

Langford Trailed (Illustrated, Figs. 8 d; 9 a, c; 
10 a) 

Descriptions have been published by Lang- 
ford (1927), J.B. Griffin (1943:277-278), J.W. 
Griffin (1948), Brown (1961:31-35), and Hall 
(1962a:70). This includes both smoothed and 
cordmarked surfaces. 
Langford Noded (Illustrated, Fig. 8 a, c, d) 

Brief descriptions were published by J.B. Grif- 
fin (1943:278) and J.W. Griffin (1948). A longer 
statement can be found in the latter 's thesis (Grif- 
fin 1946:20) and in Fenner (1963:63). Two small 
sherds from the Zimmerman site were referred to 
this type (Brown 1961:47). The number of nodes 
or lobes and their strength varies ( Griffin 1946): 
six, seven, and nine lobes occur on the Gentle- 
man Farm pots (Table 11). Both trailing and 
punctating accompany the nodes. The designs 
from both the Gentleman Farm and Fisher sites 
tend to be carelessly executed. This type has a 
counterpart in the Middle Mississippian lobed 
vessels of the middle Illinois Valley (Cole and 
Deuel 1937:125; Morse, Morse, and Emmons 
1961) and south. 

Langford Bold { Illustrated, Fig. 8 e) 

This is a new type segregated from Langford 
Trailed. It is decorated with short, wide trailed 
lines arranged vertically and spaced evenly be- 
tween the shoulder and the neck. The sample of 
whole pots is limited. Two are known from bur- 
ials from the Big East and Big West mounds at 
the Fisher site. One of the pots ( Field No. EM10) 
is cordmarked (Cutter n.d.). Sherds attributable 
to this type are illustrated by J.B. Griffin (1943: 



278, PL CXXXVIII 6, 7). Another vessel has 
been illustrated from a site near Gentleman Farm 
(Bareis 1965:Fig. 1 a). This motif has been called 
"fluted" by Fenner (1963 :Fig. 14). 

The one whole pot recovered from Gentleman 
Farm is cordmarked with large cords about .08 
inch wide, but four sherds that were found are 
smooth surfaced. The decoration was produced 
by a finger or other wide instrument and usually 
leaves a slight bulge on the interior. The width 
of the line from the Gentleman Farm sample 
ranges from 1.0 to 16mm., and it contrasts to 
the modal cluster of incised and trailed lines 
around 2 to 4 mm. found at Zimmerman and 
Gentleman Farm (Table 9; cf. Brown 1961:48). 

The motif is a distinctive one that occurs in 
many Oneota manifestations and is the charac- 
teristic design of Koshkonong Bold (Hall 1962a: 
74-75, PL 71 a, b, c; 72 a, b; 73 a, b, c). Lo- 
cally this motif turned up in small frequency at 
the Fisher site in Periods A and B in the mounds 
(Cutter n.d.), at Fifield (Skinner 1951), and at 
Oneota sites in the Chicago region (Quimby 
1960:101; J.B. Griffin 1943:285; Bluhm and Liss 
1962:109-111; Bluhm and Fenner 1962:147). 

Langford Series Miniatures (Illustrated, Figs. 8 a, 
c; 10 c, d) 

These vessels are rarely given separate notice. 
The smaller ones are usually crudely modeled 
and are more sparsely tempered than other types 
of the series. The two from Gentleman Farm are 
decorated, one in an unusual way with reed punc- 
tates (cf. Skinner 1953:Fig. 5 a, b), another with 
an incised zigzag. They were found, but not re- 
ported, in the Heally phase at Zimmerman (Field 
No. 8955, C-8, Level 3). 



Shell- Tempered Ware 
One cordmarked vessel (Fig. 7 b) was found 
that was undecorated except for shallow incised 
notches on the carelessly squared lip and a line 
of shallow punctations paralleling the lip on the 
interior of the rim. The cordmarks were pro- 
duced by two-ply S-twist cords. The exterior is 
gray-brown and the core and interior are red. 
The paste is medium in density. The particular 
rim shape is not common, but a Langford Plain 
jar from the Fisher Site is nearly identical to the 
vessel. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



27 



POTS RECOVERED FROM BURIALS IN THE GENTLEMAN FARM MOUND 



Number 


Type 


Burial 

Association 


Figure 
Reference 


Surface 


No. of Design 
Repetitions 


Capacity 
in Cups*" 


99 


Langfo rd Plain 


29 




Plain 






104 
66 


Langford Plain 
Langfo rd Trailed 


43 
16 


7A 
9C 


Plain 
Plain 


5 
6 
8 


7.9 
5.0 
9.0 
2.2 
4.0 
est. 0.2 


94 


Longford Trailed 


21 


10A 


Plain 


102 


Longford Trailed 


42 


9A 


Plain 


138 


Langford Trailed 


2 


8D 


Plain 


94 a 


Langford Trailed 


22? 


8C 


Plain 






var. Punctate 










115 


Langford Bold 


20 


8E 




17 


3.0 
0.2 
2.2 
5.0 
1.5 
3.9 
p 


86 


Langford Noded 


27 


8A 


Plain 


7 
6 
9 


97 


Langford Nod ed 


25 


9B 


Plain 


112 


Langford Noded 


33 


9D 


Plain 


114 


Adams Tradition Jar 


14 


8B 


Plain 


101 


Shell-tempered Pot 


31 


7B 


Cordmarked 






(Missing) 


21 or 22 




p 


p 



*Measurement of pot filled to the mid-height of the neck. 



A large rimsherd with trailed over cordmarking 
(Fig. 10 f) was found in the fill of the mound. 

One shell-tempered sherd that resembles a Mid- 
dle Mississippian plate was polished on one side 
and carefully incised on the other. It was de- 
scribed by Allee( 1949:12), but is now lost. 

Aztalan Ceramic Series 

The sherds from cordmarked, collared and 
castellated vessels have, for convenience, been 
grouped under the type name that constituted the 
first formal description of this widely distributed 
form (Baerreis and Freeman 1958). The original 
description itself included the entire range of var- 
iation at Aztalan, the type site (Hall 1962b). 
Hall ( 1962b) has recently designated a sub-group 
with notching on the interior lip as Starved Rock 
Collared. This is a common Late Woodland type 
in northern Illinois found at Gentleman Farm, 
Starved Rock, Fisher, and other sites (Gillette 
1949). At the Fisher site this type was found as- 
sociated with related types in the "Gravel Pit" 
mound (Wi°5) during the 1940 expedition. This 
association led to Gillette's formulation of the 
Des Plaines Complex, which includes both the 
ceramics and the burial complex. The pottery was 
divided into six classes (Gillette 1949: 45-47), of 
which the first class ("pinched rims") and the 



second class ("folded rims") are part of the col- 
lared rim vessel series. Another sub-group typical 
of the middle Wabash Valley has been described 
by Winters (1963:105-6) as Albee Cordmarked. 

Four sherds described in Allee (1949:12, 13), 
but now lost, are referred to the Aztalan series. 
The proveniences are not known. They were de- 
scribed as grit-tempered and cordmarked and 
possess brown to pink surfaces and red cores. 
All had a "pinched collar," and in one case there 
was a double row of punctates on the face of the 
collar (cf. Albee Cordmarked ). In the other cases 
the rims were either flat, notched on the interior 
lip (cf. Starved Rock Collared), or castellated 
(Fig. 10 g, 10 h). In addition 14 cordmarked 
body sherds with red cores and crumbly paste 
are tentatively identified with this series. 

The cultural context of this stylistic series was 
the contact situation of the expanding Mississip- 
pian cultural system with the indigenous Late 
Woodland, a good example of which is Aztalan 
(Barrett 1933). The style was probably of short 
duration, but it seems to have co-existed with 
other styles, such as Maples Mills (Cole and Deu- 
el 1937) and Swanson Cordmarked(Brov?nl961: 
Fig. 12 d). A Fisher B grave (EM 21) contained 
a Swanson Cordmarked pot( Gillette 1949: 67-68); 
therefore the latter type, equivalent to Gillette's 
Class III (1949), persisted into a later period. 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



^^^^^^. 






LD 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



29 



Adams Tradition Ceramics 
A complete vessel that is clearly different from 
the Langford Series (Allee 1949) was found with 
one of the mound level burials (No. 14; Fig. 5c) 
located high in the mound. It is smooth ed-sur- 
faced and decorated with small reed punctates 
on the top of the flattened lip and on the interior 
of the rim (Field No. Ls°2, pi 14; Fig. 8b). It 
was buried with part of the rim knocked off. It 
is densely tempered with sand and the shape is 
distinctive in having a modeled hip at the should- 
er. Its affiliation is apparent when it is compared 
to a jar from the Dick mound (A°28), near 
Quincy, Illinois, in the Illinois State Museum 
(Cat. No. 803134; Fig. 10 b). Both vessels dis- 
play the distinctive and intentionally modeled 
hip shoulder, and the paste and surface finish 
are very similar. This ceramic mode is very com- 
mon in the Quincy area and is found on pottery 
ranging from early Late Woodland times through 
Mississippian times. Brown (1963) has desig- 
nated this local continuity of ceramic modes the 
Adams tradition. The extent of the persistence of 
this local expression is shown by the occurrence of 
this pot type in the upper part of the Gendeman 
Farm mound, which may date around 1450. The 
Adams tradition is closely related to the Boone 
focus of Missouri through ceramics as well as 
association with the stone chamber mound mor- 
tuary complex (Griffin 1933; Deuel 1958) 



Unidentified Net-Impressed 
One grit-tempered, net-impressed sherd was 
lound with a paste closest to the local late Mid- 
dle Woodland paste. 
Small Cup 

A sherd from a small, modeled cup or toy pot 
oi 1 to 1.5 inches in diameter was found (Fig 
10 e) It is moderately tempered with shell and 
the color is orange. Two small pots of a similar 

I°™ , been foUQ d at the Fisher Site (Grif- 
fin 1946:24). 



TABLE 12 








L SHERD FREQUENCIES FROM 
, THE GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 






Lsvi 


Ls°2 


Total 


LANGFORD CERAMIC SERIES 
Smoothed, undecorated 


952 

87% 


342 

86% 


1294 
86% 


Smoothed, decorated 
Langford Trailed 
Langford Noded 
Langford Bold 


84 

(81) 
(1) 
(2) 
8% 


27 

(25) 

(2) 
7% 


111 

(106) 

(1) 

(4) 

7% 


Cordmarked, undecorated 


39 


9 


48 




4% 


2% 


3% 


Fabric-impressed, undecorated- 




1 


1 






T 


T 


Langford Trailed, cordmarked 
surface 




1 
T 


1 
T 


Miniature, incised 


1 


j 


2 




T 


T 


T 


SHELL-TEMPERED WARES 
Smoothed, undecorated 
(including cup) 


6 
T 


2 

T 


8 
T 


Smoothed, decorated 


1 




1 




T 




T 


Cordmarked, undecorated 


4 


6 


10 




T 


2% 


1% 


Cordmarked, decorated 


1 


1 


2 




T 


T 


T 


Unidentified xMiddle Mississippian 
incised 






1 
T 


AZTALAN CERAMIC SERIES 
Rims 






4 
T 


Cordmarked, undecorated body 
sherds 


7 
1% 


7 
2% 


14 

1% 


Unidentified net impressed 


1 
T 




1 
T 


T0TAL 1096 397 1498 



CHAPTER V 
NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS 



CHIPPED STONE ARTIFACTS 

Triangular Projectile Points 

Eleven triangular points and fragments were re- 
covered. Of those that could be readily identified, 
three have straight even edges and straight bases 
(Fig. lib); one has excurvate sides and a straight 
base (Fig. 11a); and one is irregular and scalene 
in shape (Fig. 11 c). The two complete specimens 
are illustrated. The dimensions of the base range 
from 1.4 to .9 inches and average 1.5 inches. 

Stemmed Projectile Points 

Three fragments of notched or stemmed projec- 
tile points that are not part of the main assem- 
blage were found in the village (Fig. 11 f, g, n). 
Two had been reworked, one into a knife-scraper, 
and the other into a gunflint. The cultural affilia- 
tions of the original artifacts are not known. 

Scrap ers 

One small biconvex scraper of the "humpback" 
type (cf. Brown 1961:54) was found in the vil- 
lage (Fig. 11 j). 

A biconvex scraper of finished triangular shape 
may be represented by a tip (cf. Brown 1961:53). 

The other scrapers had been prepared from a 
number of basic forms, including a spall, a peb- 
ble, and numerous flakes. In the case of the 
scraper made from a water-worn chert pebble, the 
scraping edge was made by flaking along the 
long edge of a platform produced by the length- 
wise removal of a number of flakes. 

A posterior tip may represent a plano-convex 
scraper that is bifacially flaked (cf. Brown 1961: 
53). 

Knives, Bifacial Blades 

Three tips of large triangular or leaf-shape 
forms were probably parts of large knives of the 
kind typical of Upper Mississippian assemblages 
(Fig. 11 k; cf. Wedel 1959:150; McKern 1945: 
135, PI. 39). They exhibit the straight and uni- 
form chipping typical of projectile points. 

Knives, Prismatic Flake 

One typical prismatic flake or blade ( Fig. Ill) 
was found as well as one atypical, very thick and 
deformed example (Ls v l ). 



Knife-scrapers 

One pointed specimen was found (Ls v l) that 
was typical of this category as it is described else- 
where (Fig. 11 d; Brown 1961:54; McKern 1945: 
134, PL 36, Figs. 4-7; Wedel 1959:51). It has 
rough alternated flaking on the edges that pro- 
duces a sinuous edge. The thickest portion is at 
the base and it is without a tip. Four other speci- 
mens seem to be reworked projectile points. Three 
of them resemble triangular points in shape. One 
that is illustrated (Fig. 11 e) is tipless and has 
rough alternate flaking typical of knife-scrapers 
on one side and projectile point flaking on the 
other. There is also a relatively large and thin 
(0.2 inch) specimen which appears to have been 
steeply rechipped on one edge and then broken. 
Two tips may also belong to this category. 

Knives, Flake 

Six flakes were retouched or simply used along 
one or two edges. 

Gunflints 

An "Indian-made" gunflint was found in Square 
95145 in a position presumably within the plow 
zone. The specimen measures 0.84 inch square 
and is bifacially chipped from local chert. Two 
of the edges have heavy hinge scars on both 
faces where the edges had struck the pan (Fig. 
11 m). Another gunflint, whose location in the 
village is uncertain, is a reused projectile point 
with a thick lenticular cross section. It measures 
1.33 inches long and has a series of long heavy 
hinge scars on both faces of the basal edge and 
a few small hinge scars on both faces of the top 
edge (Fig. 11 n). Indian-made gunflints com- 
parable to the first specimen have been found at 
Starved Rock (Hall, personal communication) and 
at the Bell site, an early eighteenth century Fox 
village in central Wisconsin (Wittry 1963:Fig. 
20f-h). 

Drills 

One expanding-base drill and one parallel- 
sided drill were found (Fig. 11 h, i). The par- 
allel-sided drill is biconvex in cross section ex- 
cept at the bit, where each edge has a flat and a 
convex face located on opposite faces to each 
other. 



30 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



31 









SCALE IN INCHES 









SL ChlpP " 1 1 S artlfaCts : ^ triangular projectile point, excurvate sides; b, triangular projectile point, straight sides; c, 

triangular projectile point, irregularly-shaped; d, and e, knife-scrapers; f, stemmed point, reworked; g, stemmed or noTched point 
h expanding base drill; i straight-sided drill; j, hump-back scraper; k, bifacial knife, fragment; 1, prismatic flake knife; m, 
Indian-made guntlmt made from a projectile point. 



GROUND AND ROUGH STONE ARTIFACTS 

Hematite Burnisher 

A small piece of hematite 1.25 inches long was 
found in the village. One side has both a large 
smooth facet and a small facet. Both of the facets 
are slightly curved, and it may have been a piece 
such as this one that produced the red interior 
of one of the recovered sherds. 

Nut-cracking Stone 

Associated with Burial 2 was a piece of a fine 
sandstone slab with pits measuring about one 
inch in diameter on one and possibly two sur- 
faces. The stone measures 4.5 x 4.0 x 2.0 inches. 

BONE ARTIFACTS 

Deer f aw Sickles 

Two deer jaw sickles were associated with Bur- 
ial 16 (Table 1). Right and left halves of dif- 



ferent deer are represented. Fortunately, though 
the jaws are not preserved intact and are eroded 
on the surface, certain features are sufficiently pre- 
served to warrant their identification as sickles 
(Brown:1964). Howard D. Winters, to whom I 
am indebted for having demonstrated the identity 
of this type of artifact, has pointed out that on 
well used specimens from Cahokia and Crable 
there is a characteristic wear pattern. First, there 
is a polish behind the teeth and at the base of 
the ramus where a haft would have been. Second, 
the occlusal surfaces of the cheek teeth are fre- 
quently smoothed and polished in a manner not 
produced by normal wear. Third, there is a sheen 
and considerable transverse striation covering the 
whole mandibular base, but principally on the 
bone below the teeth. The wear on the teeth and 
mandibular base was evidently produced by the 
abrasion of mown plants, probably thin-bladed 
siliceous vegetation such as grass. The jaws from 
Gentleman Farm show evidence of wear in the 
second and third areas. 



32 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 




(Fig. 12) Bone, antler, shell, and copper artifacts, a, ulna awl (drawn after Allee 1949); b, raccoon penis bone; c, antler projectile 
point, socketed and tanged; d, antler projectile point, golf-tee shape; e, cut antler tine (flaker?); f, long, socketed antler tine (flak- 
er?); g, decorated bone disk facing of composite ear-spool; h, shell disk bead; i, decorated copper ear-disk facing; j, drilled long 
bone (hide dresser?), two views; k, pierced shell ornament. 



The identification of this class of artifact as a 
sickle has been confirmed by an experiment per- 
formed by Brown (1964). The prototype is a 
hafted ethnological specimen from the Caddo 
(Swanton 1942:P1. 16, 1), and its function as a 
sickle for gathering grass for house thatch was 
suggested by Bushnell (Swanton 1942:153). Such 
a function could have obtained in the Illinois 
River Valley where grass thatching was employed 
in the construction of house walls and roofs 
(Brown 1964:384; 1965). 

These artifacts have been rarely recognized 
(Brown 1964), and where they do appear in the 
literature they are called hoes, dibbles (Simpson 
1952:71), or corn shelters (Hall 1962a:42; PI. 
13v). Specimens have been found along the eastern 
margin of the Southern Plains that have the same 
attributes as those in the Prairie Peninsula (cf. 



Brown 1964; Pillaert 1963:34-35). A functional 
identification was not advanced, but the sickle 
interpretation was strengthened by the illustration 
of a well preserved mandible with haft intact (Pil- 
laert 1963:P1. XXIII 2,4). At the Oklahoma Wash- 
ita River sites they are among the grave goods 
accompanying the burials of adult women, im- 
plying that the tool was used in the activities of 
women (Phillaert 1963). This context is not du- 
plicated at Gentleman Farm if the skeletal identi- 
fication of No. 16 as a male is accepted. 

Awl, Ulna 

One ulna awl (? Canis sp.) with an unmodi- 
fied proximal end and a tapered point was once 
in the collections from the site (Fig. 13 a). A fish 
bone awl recorded by Allee (1949:13) is, ac- 
cording to Parmalee, an unworked fish spine. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



33 



Awl, Raccoon Penis Bone 

A raccoon penis bone awl was recovered from 
the mound fill (Fig. 12b). The distal or curved 
end was pared down on the sides and outside 
faces to form a chisel-like tip. The paring oper- 
ation left striations that are quite pronounced. 
Judging from these striations and the lack of 
polish, the artifact was not extensively used. The 
proximal end has been broken away squarely 
near the tip, without leaving marks showing that 
it was intentionally cut. The part of the inside sur- 
face of the proximal end that is shown missing in 
the illustration is, however, a fresh break. The 
function of this type of artifact is not completely 
apparent, but the appearance of polish along the 
entire length except for the butt or proximal end 
on Fisher site specimens in the collections of the 
Illinois State Museum (cf. Griffin 1946:33, 60), 
argues for their use as probing or hooking tools 
such as would be used in weaving. 

Drilled Long Bone (Hide Dresser?) 

The distal end of a cervid (elk?) radius was 
found that had been sliced in half and pierced 
with a hole (Fig. 12 j). Similar tools among the 
Chippewa were employed as combination hide 
grainers and hide softeners (Densmore 1929: 
164). The flat, smooth side was used to rub out 
rough spots in small hides and the hole was used 
to soften hides by drawing the hide through it. 
This is the presumed function of the artifact from 
Gentleman Farm, since there is no evidence of 
such a use, or any other, in the pattern of wear. 

Decorated Disk Facing of a Composite Ear Spool 
A circular section of what was probably the 
bony opercle of possibly the buffalo fish {Ictio- 
bus sp.) has a design cut out of the bone (Fig. 
12 g). It is composed of an equal arm cross 
of pattee'type surrounded by a circle with a ser- 
rated edge. Ornaments of similar design, size, 
and material have been found in the Heally phase 
at the Zimmerman site (Brown 1961:58, Fig. 
18 b) and at Plum Island (Fenner 1963:Fig. 33 d). 
Langford (n.d.) found two of these cut-out disks, 
each with a different design, in a burial in South- 
southwest Mound at Fisher. Both were found 
immediately below two bone tubes that were be- 
neath the ear region of a "young woman." The 
ear disks are about 25% greater in diameter 
than the diameter of the tubes. The tubes are 



shorter in length than they are wide and the 
surfaces of the tubes are slightly concave. This 
association argues for the cut-out disks being 
facings to composite ear spools. They appear, 
then, to be a stylistic variation of the familiar 
pulley -type ear spool. The motif appears on 
shell gorgets and pottery of this general time 
period, mostly to the south and southeast in a 
Southern Cult context (Waring and Holder 1945; 
Fundaburk and Foreman 1957). The closest oc- 
currence of the circular cross on a shell gorget 
is at the Crable site (Smith 1951:P1. 5, 8 m, 9 i 
j; Morse 1960:129-131), which is located about 
100 miles downstream from Gentleman Farm 
(Fig. 4). Important elements of the motif are 

(1) the cross, which is a directional symbol; 

(2) the central circle, which represents the sun; 

(3) the outer circle, which may also represent 
the sun or simply the world or universe; and 

(4) the indentations on the outside, or some- 
times on the inside, of the outer circle that rep- 
resents the rays of the sun(cf. Kneberg 1959:13 
15; Willoughby 1932:59 f). This constitutes a 
stylistic connection with the Southern Cult com- 
plex, but does not indicate its presence in north- 
ern Illinois. Rather it can be interpreted as an 
element expressing the interaction of northern 
Illinois with the greater Southeast. The motif 
itself is a combination of sun and world direc- 
tional symbolism that had a widespread distri- 
bution among Eastern tribes and possibly had 
different roles within the different cultural sys- 
tems in which it has been found. In the cosmol- 
ogy of the Prairie tribes, in general the sun and 
the four directions have a prominent role (Dor- 
sey 1894:524-527). In the case of the Illiniwek, 
the sun was supposed to have been highly ven- 
erated (cf. Kinietz 1940:212), and four-direction 
symbolism was an element of many ceremonies 
(cf. Trowbridge 1938), among them the Calu- 
ment Dance (Fenton 1953:161). 

Undecorated cut-out disks of the same size and 
material are found in the Heally phase and late in 
the Koshkonong focus (Hall 1962a:43, PI. 13 m, 
and person communication). 

ANTLER ARTIFACTS 

Projectile Points 

One projectile point made from an antler tine 
was found. It is socketed and tanged, but only 



34 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 




(Fig. 13) Shell spoons, d, type la; b, and e, type Ha; c, and f, type lib; 
c, No. 2; d, No. 4; e, No. 29; f, No. 25). 



type III (burial associations: a, No. 16; b, No. 43; 



slightly modified on the outside (Fig. 12 c). The 
length from tip to base is 1.9 inches and the out- 
side dimension is 0.55 inch. Another artifact of 
similar shape and presumably similar function 
that was recovered from the mound fill is much 
smaller and made either of bone or antler (Fig. 
12 d). In outline it resembles a golf tee, but with 
a slightly constricted neck and a flat base. The 
opening at the base is 0.21 inch and the depth 
of the hole is 0.19 inch. The length is 0.74 inch 
and the outside diameter is 3.5 inches. 



Detached Tines 

Two detached tines were found. One is short, 
conical and flat-based (Fig. 12 e); the other is 
longer, curved, and probably socketed (Fig. 12 f). 
Tines like the latter were probably hafted flakers 



and have been found in Period B houses and 
burials of the Fisher site (J.W. Griffin 1946:27, 
60, 98, 111); and in the Heally complex, where 
they have been called spear points (Brown 1961: 
58, Fig. 18 p). 

SHELL ARTIFACTS 

Shell Spoons 

Four types of worked shell spoons came from 
the burials in the mound. The classification agrees 
with that set up by J.W. Griffin (1946:35) for the 
Fisher site. 

Type la consists of spoons that have on the 
anterior margin of the shell a single notched tang 
that was formed by the grinding down of the 
lateral and pseudo-cardinal teeth (Fig. 13 d). Three 
specimens were found. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



35 



Type Ha consists of spoons that have a dou- 
ble notch forming the tang. They are essentially 
single-notched spoons with an additional, com- 
plementary notch isolating the tang (Fig. 13 b, e). 
This type is undecorated. Three specimens were 
found. 

Type lib consists of double-notched spoons 
with a notched or scalloped decoration at the 
tang or along the margins (Fig. 13 c, f). Two 
examples were recovered. 

Type III includes other spoon forms. At Gen- 
tleman Farm there was a single example of this 
type. It was made by the grinding away of the 
whole anterior margin in the process of grinding 
the lateral and pseudo-cardinal teeth (Fig. 13 a). 
All the spoons were manufactured from valves 
of Lampsilis ventricosa, which appears to have 
been consistently selected for such use by many 
groups, especially the Mississippians (Baker 
1941:35). This particular species of shell was the 
source for spoons in a number of Mississippian 
components such as Heally (Zimmerman site 
Brown 1961:35), Fisher A and B (Griffin 1946- 
35), Dickson Mound (Cole and Deuel 1937- 
226), and Morton (F14, Baker 1937:269). Twice 
as many left valves as right were found. This 
situation would be expected if there were selection 
for the valves most suited to be held by the right 
hand. Homes (1883:199) also found that left 
valves were more prevalent and drew the same 
conclusion. Skinner (1925:136) found this pref- 
erence to exist among the modern Sauk as well. 

Pendant 

A small hole drilled from both sides is in the 
center of one heavily eroded valve of probably 
Elhptio crassidens (Fig. 12 k). This pendant was 
found with Burial 21. 

Scrapers 

Many shells have been used as scrapers and 
have had the lower edge altered through use. 
These clam shell scrapers were probably used 
as corn shellers, a use which has persisted into 
recent times among the Central Algonquian (Har- 
lan 1933:117; Skinner 1925:136). 



Hair Ornament 

A cut, smoothed, semi-circle of shell may have 
been part of an ornament. The width is .2 inch, 
the maximum thickness is .1 inch and the pres- 
ent length is .6 inch. 

Disk Beads 

Nine small disk beads were found in back of 
the skull of Burial 20 and are part of a single 
necklace (Fig. 12 h). They range in diameter from 
•23 to .20 inch (6 to 5mm.) and in thickness 
from .04 to .12 inch (1 to 3mm.). 



COPPER ARTIFACTS 
Ear -Disk Facings 

One pair of irregular, undecorated flat cop- 
per ear-disks was found in the ear region of Bur- 
ial 27. They measured 1.5 x 1.4 inches and 1.6 
x 1.5 inches. Traces of a circular piece of organic 
matter adhere to both disks, so it is likely that 
they were backed with stiff material. In two close- 
ly related sites copper ear-disks were backed by a 
thin wooden disk (Fowler 1952:56) and a piece 
of leather (Griffin 1946:44). Similar ear-disk fac- 
ings have been reported from Wisconsin without 
any provenience (Hall 1962a:144-5, PI. 81a-c). 
One ear-disk facing which was found by an 
amateur on the river side of the mound is a cir- 
cular disk 1.3 inches in diameter and 0.05 inch 
thick. It is decorated with an incised "spider" fig- 
ure* (Fig. 12 i), the body of which is depressed 
and the whole of which is surrounded by notched 
impressions that, according to Kneberg( 1959:13), 
represent a web. This motif has been associated 
with the first phase of the Southern Cult complex 
in the Tennessee Valley, which is estimated to 
have lasted until 1400 (Kneberg 1959). Similar 
designs on shell have been found at the Crable 
site (Morse 1960:127, 129), which was occu- 
pied about the same time or later (Crane and 
Griffin 1959:181). Its presence at the Gentleman 
Farm site as well as in other areas in Illinois 
can be interpreted as additional evidence of par- 
ticipation of the more marginal Mississippian 
groups in the Southern cult interaction sphere. 

*It has been suggested that the raised areas, rath- 
er than the depressed lines, might be the legs. If 
the raised areas in the middle are space, this 
would give the figure eight legs, the number of 
legs on a spider. (Edward A. Munyer, Zoologist, 
Illinois State Museum). 



CHAPTER VI 



INTERPRETATION 



THE LANGFORD TRADITION 
The Langford tradition is a local expression 
of Upper Mississippian culture that is concen- 
trated in northeastern Illinois. The heaviest known 
concentration of occupation and the most com- 
plete sequence is found in the upper Illinois Val- 
ley and along its tributaries (Fig. 14). This lo- 
cation is one in which prairie predominated on 
the lightly dissected till plains and the forest in the 
stream valleys. The rivers were only navigable 
at high water, and the bordering bottom lands 
were relatively narrow compared to the middle 
and lower Illinois Valley and its tributaries (Sau- 
er 1916). Around Lake Michigan the terrain 
was marshland relieved by moranic ridges and 
dunes (Quimby 1960:99-100). Surrounding this 
tradition were different Upper Mississippi and 
Middle Mississippi traditions with which the Lang- 
ford tradition was in continous interaction (cf. 
Wray 1952:157-8, 161-2). 

The name, Langford tradition, has been intro- 
duced (Brown 1961:75) to facilitate discussion of 
the cultural complexes associated with a partic- 
ular, localized ceramic style that had continuity 
over an observable length of time. This classi- 
fication differs from previous arrangements. In 
terms of J.W. Griffin's Fisher sequence, which has 
been followed by Wray (1952:161-2), Deuel 
(1958:42-44), and Quimby (1960:99-102) with 
some change of names, the tradition includes 
Fisher B and C but excludes Fisher A, an earlier, 
exclusively shell-tempered ceramic manifestation. 
The evidence for continuity between Fisher A and 
B is weak. Many of the motifs are different* and 
there is a greater emphasis on cordmarked sur- 
face treatment in Fisher A. Taken as a whole, 
the shell-tempered complex contrasts in a number 
of distinct attributes from the grit-tempered Lang- 
ford Series (Griffin 1943:Tables XI-XII). The 
proposal of a Langford tradition follows the argu- 
ment of Fowler (1952) that Fisher B represents 
a different tradition than the preceding Fisher A. 
The latter is more clearly affiliated with the Chi- 
cago area Oneota or the Blue Island or Huber 
focus. 

"For an extended discussion of the stylistic dif- 
ferences involved, see Brown ( 1965). 



There is typological evidence that the tradition 
was established shortly after the expansion ofMis- 
sissippian culture into the Prairie Peninsula. Lang- 
ford Series sherds of jars with marked shoulders 
and rolled lips (Chap. IV) have been found in 
the Chicago area, and at Forest Home (Fowler 
1952), Oakwood Mound (Skinner 1953: Chap. 
IV), and Fisher. In form these sherds resemble 
Powell Plain and Ramey Incised vessel shapes 
(cf. Griffin 1949). At the same time period, there 
is evidence from another quarter. There is a 
large rimsherd from Aztalan in the Milwaukee 
Public Museum (Cat. No. 26097/6948) (cf. Bar- 
rett 1933: Fig. 140) that falls easily within the 
range of variation of Langford Cordmarked on 
the basis of rim and lip form, vessel form, tem- 
per, and color. On the basis of this evidence and 
a consideration of the similarity of the Langford 
Series to the Aztalan Series (Chap. IV), it is 
quite likely that the Langford tradition has its 
stylistic affinities with both the Cahokian and 
indigenous Late Woodland traditions. If such is 
the case, the tradition emerged from the social and 
cultural reorganization of the population inhab- 
iting the Prairie Peninsula following the intrusion 
of a new and more complex cultural-adaptive 
system from the American Bottoms (cf. Hall 
1962 a; Griffin 1960). The Late Woodland involved 
was probably the Des Plaines complex (Gillette 
1949), and elements of the latter ceramic style 
continued to survive this reorganization and co- 
exist with the regional Mississippian in certain 
localities (Chap. IV). 

At sites, such as Gendeman Farm, that are 
without evidence of Early Mississippian vessel 
forms, a small amount of Middle Mississippian 
pottery is consistently found. In each case the 
association is not in a primary context, such as 
in graves or smashed in situ on house floors, 
but is in a secondary context of refuse pits or 
sheet middens. There is a definite opportunity for 
contamination with older deposits, but in at least 
one instance, that of grids C and D at the Zim- 
merman site, there are no known older deposits. 
The Middle Mississippian sherds are Cahokia 
Cordmarked and Wells Incised. The former has 
been identified at the Zimmerman site in or near 
Heally component deposits. The latter has been 



36 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 

TABLE I! 
AUNAL REMAINS FROM THE GENTLEMAN FARM SITE, LsV ] AND Ls°2 





IdenUi 


cation.-, by 


|( jby 




F. Bar 


h. 1949. from 


P. W. Parmalee, 1901. 




total CC 


llection 


from extant ISM 




(Alle 


e 1949) 


collection. 


FRESH-WATER MUSSELS 








Fusconaia undala. l'ig-Toe 




x 




Cyclonaias tuberculata, Purple Warty-back 




X 


2 

7 
2 


Elliptio dilalatus, Spike 






El/iplii, crassidens, Elephant's Ear 






Actinonaias carinaia, Mucket 






Lampsilis ventricosa, Pocketbook 




X 


5 


VERTEBRATES 






■ 


White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus 




80 
29 




Canid, Cam's sp. 




9 


Bison, Bison bison 




22 
13 
6 
3 
3 
2 




Beaver. Castor canadensis 






Raccoon, Procyon tutor 






Elk, Cervus canadensis 






Muskrat, Ondralu -ibetliica 




1 


Woodchuck, Marmota monax 




1 


Plains Pocket Gopher, Gcomys bursarius 








Fox, Vulpesfulva 




1 
1 


1 


Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis 






Turtle, sp. undet. 




34 


1 


Birds, spp. 




11 




Duck, sp. undet. 




7 
19 




Fish, spp. 




1 


Fresh-water Drum, Apludinutus grunniens 




3 


2 

1 


Catfish, Ictalurus sp. 







identified at Plum Island and Osborn * and is 
probably the incised type found at the Gentleman 
Farm site. At Oneota sites of the same time in 
Wisconsin (Walker-Hooper and Carcajou), sherds 
of the Langford Series have been found (Hall 
1962a:70). Moreover, it should be noted that the 
Langford tradition type of mound cemetery is 
found at the Walker-Hooper site (Jeske 1927). 
On the other hand, it has been argued that the 
Langford tradition is proto-historic and early 
historic (Orr 1949; Fenner 1963) and that such 
typological cross-ties are derived from fortuitous 
associations (Fenner 1963). However, strong evi- 
dence is lacking that would support a Dositive 
association with historic material. In every case 
of alleged association there are multiple occu- 
pations represented in the vicinity (e.g. Zimmer- 

*0ften known as the Kankakee River RefuseHeap. 
Langford (1930), however, has suggested that 
the name be changed to the Osborne site since 
he later recognized that it was not a refuse heap 
but a burial mound of the Fisher type. The ob- 
servations were based on the part of the collection 
in the Illinois State Museum. 



man Grid A, Plum Island, and Starved Rock) 
and a complex series of pits whose contents were 
not always easy to segregate. The "Historic Heal- 
ly" complex, itself, consists of low frequencies of 
rather small body sherds that could have been 
fortuitous inclusions. In the case of the Plum 
Island and Starved Rock sites there are occu- 
pations representing Archaic, Early or Middle 
Woodland, and Late Woodland, as well as his- 
toric. When we turn to the cases of firm assoc- 
iation with historic goods at Starved Rock and 
Zimmerman the aboriginal ceramic styles are dis- 
tinctly different (Brown 1961:74-76; Figs. 13 a, 
14, 15) and share important stylistic attributes 
with other documented historic ceramics (Wittry 
1963; Quimby 1966: Fig. 28 d). Considering the 
extent to which the substantial prehistoric age 
of the Langford tradition is contested by some 
because of poor context (Fenner 1963), it should 
be pointed out that the evidence of historical as- 
sociation at Plum Island and Zimmerman like- 
wise suffers from the same defect. The situation 
will be reviewed by R.L. Hall in a forthcoming 
study of the excavations at Starved Rock. 



38 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 
TABLE 14 
GENTLEMAN FARM ARTIFACT LIST 



Grave 
Goods 



Artifacts from General Contexts 



Langford Tradition 
Artifacts 



SECURING OF FOOD 
Hunting 

Projectile points, chipped stone, triangular 

Projectile point, antler, socketed and tanged 

Projectile point, antler, golf-tee shaped 

Projectile points, chipped stone, stemmed or notched . 
Gunflints, Indian-made 

SECURING OF RAW MATERIALS 

Sickles, deer jaw 

PREPARATION OF FOOD 

Nut-cracking stone 

Corn shellers or scrapers, shell 

CONTAINERS AND UTENSILS 
Utensils 

Shell spoons, type la 

Shell spoons, type Ha 

Shell spoons, type lib 

Shell spoons, type III 

Shell spoons (?), unworked 

Pottery 

Langford Plain 

Langford Trailed, plain surface 

Langford Cordmarked (And fabric impressed) . . . . 

Langford Trailed, Cordmarked surface 

Langford Noded. 

Langford Bold 

Langford Series Miniatures 

Shell-tempered plain 

Shell-tempered trailed, plain surface 

Shell-tempered cordmarked 

Shell-tempered trailed, cordmarked surface 

Aztalan Collared Series 

Middle Mississippian Incised 

Adams tradition 

Small cup 

Unidentified net impressed Middle Woodland (?). . 

CRAFTS 

General Processing Tools 

Scrapers, chipped stone, biconvex, humpback 

Scrapers, chipped stone, biconvex 

Scrapers, chipped stone, plano-convex, bifacial. . . . 

Scrapers, chipped stone, flake 

Knives, chipped stone, bifacial blades 

Knives, chipped stone, prismatic flake 

Knives, chipped stone, flake 

Knlfe-scraper, chipped stone, pointed 

Knife-scraper, chipped stone, others 

Drill, chipped stone, expanding base 

Drill, chipped stone, parallel sides 

"Artifacts presumably predating the Langford Tradition 
■■Artifacts of European derivation 



86% 
7% 
3% 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
1% 
T 
1% 
T 



2* 
2» 



- 

rABLE 14 (Concluded) 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



39 



Grave 
Goods 



Artifacts from General Contexts 



Langford Tradition 
Artifacts 



Artifacts Probably of 
Other Affiliations 



Hide Working 

Awl, canid ulna 

Hide dresser (?), pierced radius head section 

Chipped Stone Working 

Flaker, antler, detached tine 

Flakers, antler, socketed tine 

Painting 

Hematite burnisher 

Weaving 

Raccoon penis bone awl 

DRESS AND ORNAMENT 

Pendant, drilled shell valve 1 

Beads, shell, disk (one necklace) 9 

Hair ornament, shell, sliver 1 

Ornament, shell 

Ear-disk facings, copper plain 1 j 

Ear-disk facings, copper, incised decoration 

Decorated bone ear-disk facing, circular cross design . . . 



The tradition is made up of several phases 
distinguished mainly by changes in ceramic style 
or frequencies of types (Brown 1961:75). As yet, 
certain evidence of adaptive change within the 
tradition is lacking, although this point was con- 
templated when the Langford tradition was 
thought to have persisted into the early historic 
period, when a different adaptation did exist in 
the area (Brown 1961: 68-70). It can now be 
proposed that the earliest recognized phase of the 
Langford tradition can be placed in a period when 
the Old Village phase of the Cahokian tradition 
was well established. Radiocarbon dates run on 
material directly associated with Langford ware 
fall as early as around A.D. 1200, the same 
time at which other assays from the American 
Bottoms would place part of the Old Village 
phase (Fowler 1963) and those from Wisconsin 
would fix the age of Aztalan, a daughter com- 
munity (Baerreis and Bryson 1965). The Ca- 
hokian tradition and even the Old Village phase 
is, however, clearly older (Hall 1966). Other 
dates on Langford ware fall as late as around 
1400-1500 (Table 16), and probably indicate 
its later end. With such a range of time to ac- 
count for, we are still not well prepared to docu- 
ment the internal chronological changes in the 
Langford tradition that one might expect to have 



obtained. Only limited stratigraphic data are avail- 
able, and they consist of the stratigraphic de- 
posits in Grid C at Zimmerman (Brown 1961) 
and the burial superpositions in the Big East 
and Big West mounds at Fisher that have given 
rise to the Fisher B and Fisher C sequence in the 
Langford tradition (Griffin 1946). Although there 
are differences among the deposits, it is not clear 
at present just what differences are due to sam- 
pling error and what reflect changes in the cul- 
tural tradition. The Heally phase as represented 
by the C-3 and C-8/13 houses at Zimmerman 
and probably the House 15 at Fisher, which is 
very similar to the former in ceramics (Griffin 
1946) and is clearly the earliest known. The 
burials from the Fisher mounds and Gentleman 
Farm cannot be confidently placed in a time 
chart considering the differences in the ages of 
the C14 determinations made on skeletons from 
the Material Service site and the Zimmerman 
site (Table 16). 

The pottery is entirely Upper Mississippian 
in the range of vessel form, being confined to 
practically a single form, a round bottom jar 
with straight or everted rims and with sizes rang- 
ing from large multi-gallon storage jars to min- 
iature jars. However, the ware is distinctive, be- 
ing hard-surfaced and tempered with a black 



40 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 




MAP OF 
MIDDLE AND UPPER MISSISSIPPI SITES 
IN THE 
UPPER DRAINAGE OF THE ILLINOIS RIVER 



(Fig. 14) Map of some Middle and Upper Mississippi Sites. 



angular crystalline grit, instead of the usual 
crushed shell. Undecorated and smoothed sur- 
faces are characteristic. But in the early phase 
of the tradition some shell-tempering occurs to- 
gether with grit-tempering, and cordmarked sur- 
faces are more common, both elements being 
more typical of the Illinois Valley. The shell- 
tempered pottery can be identified as both Fisher 
and Oneota in its more characteristic northern 
expressions. The designs, either trailed or in- 
cised above the shoulders of the vessels, are pre- 
dominantly meanders, zig-zags, chevrons, and 
rainbows, all of which are common and wide- 
spread throughout the Prairie area (Hall 1960: 
PI. 48). Other treatments that possibly pertain 



to distinct horizons throughout the Illinois Val- 
ley, such as the technique of lobing of the walls 
and the motif of vertical plats of trailed or in- 
cised lines, also occur in the Langford tradition. 
Setdements in the early phases, where our 
knowledge is best, were composed of clusters of 
alignments of large, semi-subterranean houses 
(Langford 1927; J. W. Griffin 1946; Brown 1961) 
that are very similar to the Spoon River and 
Old Village houses downstream (Cole and Deuel 
1937: Figs. 16, 23, 25; Caldwell, personal com- 
munication). The villages are located on terraces 
(usually T-l) along the major and minor streams. 
The economy was essentially the same as found 
elsewhere in the prairie area; it was based on 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 

TABLE 15 
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF BURIAL MOUND STATISTICS AND TRAITS OF THE LANGFORD TRADITION 






Oakwood Robinson Gentlema 
Reserve Farm 



BlgEastMd. Big West Md. 
Fisher Fisher 



Diameter 
Height . . 



Burials- Number recovered. 
Estimated total . . . 



64 to 67 ft. 
7.9 ft. 



c. 100 
c. 100 



100 ft. 
5 ft. 



48 
200-300 



50 ft. 
5 ft. 



60 It. 
6 ft. 



Occupation Adjacent to Mound. . . 

Associated with burials . . . 

Built on a natural rise . . . . 

Built over existing cemetery . 

Number of mound stages . . 

Terminal mound cap 

Stage built as a unit 

Accretion or surface graves 

Pit graves 

Personal grave goods 

Burial furniture 



G 

G 

G 

G 

G 

Gi ? 

Gl 

Gl+ 
GcGl 
GcGl 
GcGl 



E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 2 

Ei E 2 ? 

El + E 2 

E C E, E 2 ? 

E c Ej E 2 

E c E X E 2 



W 
W 

w? 
w 
w 
w 2 

Wi ? 

w 2 

W c Wi W 2 ? 
W c Wi W 2 
W c Wl W 2 



At least 13 and 10 burials respectively were from the lower level of each mound and probably do not belong with the mound 

proper. 
+ Burials may have been included in the mantle at time of deposition, 
c = Pre-mound cemetery 1 = First stage 2 = Second stage 



both an advanced and uniform agricultural sys- 
tem of maize, beans and squash, and the exploi- 
tation of natural food resources through hunting, 
fishing and collecting. There was a dependence 
upon a variety of locally based and locally avail- 
able fauna, mainly deer, small vertebrates, and 
mollusks (Table 13; Brown 1961:68-70), thus 
differing from the historic adaptation. 

MOUND CONSTRUCTION 
The Gendeman Farm mound exhibited a form 
of mound construction that has already been 
described for the Big East and Big West mounds 
at the Fisher site (Langford 1927; Griffin 1946, 
1948). The pattern was that of constructing over 
a cemetery a low, broad mound that was used 
as a new burial ground. Separating the mound 
from the cemetery were ash beds that were pre- 
sumably the remains of fires over individual 
graves. This pattern of mound building has puz- 
zled Griffin (1946:52-3) and Allee (1949:9) be- 
cause of the apparent contradiction of having a 
mound or mound stage in which most, if not all, 
the burials were interred after its completion. Two 
possible explanations present themselves. One is 



that this type of mound was erected primarily as 
a monument to the underlying burials and was 
used secondarily as a burial ground (Allee 1949: 
9). Elsewhere in the Illinois Valley, however, 
mounds were erected over a graveyard and never 
reused (e.g. Crable F898; Smith 1951:12; Morse 
1960:124); and the practice of interring the dead 
on prominent locations is, in general, widespread 
(Bushnell 1920, 1927) and is reflected in the pre- 
mound cemetery at Gentleman Farm and Fisher 
(Langford 1927). An alternative explanation is 
that this type of mound is one which was de- 
liberately placed over a crowded cemetery in order 
to provide more space for new graves. This ex- 
planation implies that special importance was 
attached to the plot on which the mound was 
built. There is, however, further reason to be- 
lieve that special significance was attached to 
these mounds. They were built in one unit, and 
in the case of the Big East mound the first stage 
had a distincdy stepped profile typical of pyra- 
midal mounds (Griffin 1946:50). A mortuary may 
have been associated with the mound. Although 
the latter explanation may seem unwarranted and 
novel, the fact remains that in the case of the 



42 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



Gentleman Farm mound there does not seem to 
be a great cultural or temporal gap between the 
cemetery and the mound burials as one would 
expect if there had been only a circumstantial 
relationship between them. Neither of these ex- 
planations is completely satisfactory; and, in fact, 
more information may show that both are partly 
correct. 

The Gentleman Farm type of burial mound 
does not seem to be the sole Langford type. There 
is evidence that there was an accretion mound 
type, which was constructed characteristically by 
the accumulation of a large number of small indi- 
vidual burial mounds and inclusive burials. Ex- 
amples of this type of burial mound in the Lang- 
ford tradition are Oakwood Mound, Robinson 
Reserve, and four of the Fisher mounds (West 
Mound, Southwest Mound, South-southwest 
Mound, and Northwest Mound). In the lower 
Illinois Valley, this type was thought to be repre- 
sented by the Dickson Mound (Cole and Deuel 
1937: 122) before recent excavations (1966) 
showed that, like Gentleman Farm, it was of 
mixed grave construction. Although little is known 
about these mounds, they differ from Gentleman 
Farm not only in the absence of definite mound 
stages, but also in the preponderance of flexed 
burials without burial furniture and with few 
other grave goods except personal ornaments. 



BURIAL POSITION AND BURIAL 
PROCEDURES 

A series of extended, semi-flexed, flexed, and 
disarticulated burials were found that were ori- 
ented to most of the points of the compass and 
often associated with grave goods. The grave 
goods, which consisted mainly of vessels and 
mussel shell spoons, were distributed unevenly 
and in a manner that revealed a structure to the 
mortuary behavior. In Chapter II it has been 
shown that there is a high association of cer- 
amic vessels and/or spoons with the southern 
division of the north-south partition in burial 
orientation. As a result of this association it can 
be advanced that the arrangement of the burials 
into south and west orientations as opposed to 
those to the north, was an important element in 
organization of mortuary practices. The vari- 



ables of age and sex crosscut this division and 
were neutral in this structural arrangement. The 
role of position cannot be easily determined from 
the sample at hand, although there are promising 
indications that it was indeed related to the struc- 
ture of mortuary behavior at the site. 

It has been customary to regard the extended 
burials of this time period as Mississippian, the 
flexed burials as Woodland, and a combination 
of the two as a mixture. However, even in many 
of the Illinois Valley Middle Mississippian sites, 
e.g. Dickson Mound and Morton F°13, P14 
(Cole and Deuel 1937:91, 100, 122), and the 
Emmons site (Morse, Morse and Emmons 1961), 
which have a burial pattern very close to 
Gentleman Farm and Fisher, semi-flexed and flexed 
burials occur together with extended burials. Hence 
it is just as appropriate to regard a variety of 
positions as characteristic of the total mortuary 
complex. The diversity of positions can be readily 
interpreted as different mortuary behavior depen- 
dent upon social differences and the complexity 
of the burial program. Turning to the resident, 
early historic tribe, the Iliniwek, we can see the 
culturally and socially conditioned basis of dif- 
ferent burial procedures (Kinietz 1940; Bauxar 
1953; 1959:45). 

For instance, according to La Salle and De- 
Liette, primary extended interments were placed 
in graves beneath sheds (Pease and Werner 1934: 
357-358), and according to Joutel, in hollowed 
log coffins (Stiles 1906:193-194). The inclusion 
of grave goods seems to have been standard and 
the pot or kettle filled with corn appears to have 
been the most frequent item. The inclusion of 
most other goods apparently depended upon 
whether the item was associated with the activities 
of the sex of the dead. A second form of burial 
mentioned frequently was scaffold burial. In one 
of the accounts of Joutel (Margry 1878-1888:3: 
504-507) a log coffin was elevated on a platform, 
whereas in the description of Rale ( Thwaites 1896- 
1901:67:167) bodies were placed in skin bags 
that were tied high in trees. Another burial form 
was also mentioned by Joutel (Margry 1878- 
1888:2:504) that suggests the practice of storing 
scraped bones in a charnel house. He reported 
that "they had in the granery of the fort ( St. Lou- 
is), the bones of an Iliniwek chief." Thus, among 
the Iliniwek there is clear indication of different 
interment procedures and, moreover, a clue that 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



4!5 



TABLE 16 
CORRESPONDENCE OF RADIOCARBON AND CALENDRICAL DATES FOR LANGFORD WARE ASSOCIATIONS 



Sample 



Radiocarbon Date 



Calendrical Date* Material 



Site 



Sour 



OX -760 A.D. 1600 ± 85 A.D. 1490 ± 85 

M-747 A.D. 1520 ± 125** A.D. 1455 ± 125 

GX-830 A.D. 1135 ± 105 A.D. 1210 ± 105 

GX-833 A.D. 1135 ±95 A.D. 1210 ±95 



Collogen 
Charcoal 
Charcoal 
Collogen 



Zimmerman (111.) 
Carcajou (Wis.) 
Sweat Bee (111.) 
Material Service (111.) 



Unpublished 

Crane & Griffin 1959:178 

Unpublished 

Unpublished 



"Derived from the conversion table by Stuiver and Suess (1966). **Converted to 1 sigma deviation and 1950 baseline. 



there was differential treatment of individuals of 
high rank. The differences here are dependent 
upon difference within social rank. 

AFFILIATIONS 
Several complexes are represented at the Gen- 
tleman Farm site; however, the dominant com- 
plex, which belongs to the Langford tradition, 
is associated with the only well-defined component 
at this site. It includes the burial mound, ceme- 
tery, and probably all the features of the oc- 
cupation. 

At least two other complexes are represented. 
One predates the main Upper Mississippian oc- 
cupation and may be Havana. It is probably 
represented by some broken and reworked pro- 
jectile points (Fig. 9, f, g), and by a net-impres- 
sed sherd. The other complex postdates the main 
occupation and is early historic or perhaps pro- 
i to historic. It is chiefly represented by two "Indian- 
! made" gunflints (Fig. 9 m, n) from the occu- 
; pation midden. Since the precise provenience of 
these gunflints cannot be ascertained, it is not 
possible to determine whether or not these arti- 
j facts were in a mixed context or not. At least one 
I which appears to have come from the bottom ( ?) 
of the plow zone can be regarded as intrusive. 
It is most clearly linked with J.W. Griffin's 
: Period B at the Fisher site, or more precisely 
i with Zone I of the Middle level of the Big East 
I and Big West mounds at this site ( Langford 1927; 
I Griffin 1946). The correspondence lies in ceramics 
(J and mound construction, the latter of which has 
been described above. 

In all three mounds the bulk of the pots were 
'• langford Plain, Langford Trailed ( Plain Surface), 
! Langford JVoded, and Langford Bold. However, 
I such types as Langford Trailed ( Cordmarked Sur- 
j face) and Langford Cordmarked were restricted 
to the Fisher site, where in the Big East and Big 



West mounds Griffin (1946:58) could only con- 
fidently place stratigraphically oneLangford Cord- 
marked pot. 

Chronological Position 

In the absence of radiocarbon dates from the 
Gentleman Farm site those from sites of the same 
tradition can be relied upon to support a date 
lying between A.D. 1200 and 1500 (Table 16). 
The dates that appear in Table 16 are those that 
were made on material associated with Langford 
pottery* The Zimmerman site date was made on 
the collagen fraction of a human femur of Burial 
21, which was associated with a Langford Trailed 
jar (Brown 1961:Fig. 8 c). The date from the 
Material Service site was associated with a Lang- 
ford Bold jar (Bareis 1965: Fig. 1 a) and char- 
coal from Sweat Bee, in the Shelbyville Reser- 
voir, Kaskaskia River, dates a Middle Missis- 
sippian and Langford ceramic association (Wil- 
liam Gardner, person communication). The Car- 
cajou Point date is from a feature in which Kosh- 
konong Bold and Category G sherds, which would 
now be called Langford ware by Hall, were found 
together ( Hall 1962a:74). 

Since these dates are not helpful in fixing a 
narrower time range, the cultural affiliations of 
the "spider" motif may be decisive. This motif is 
found on shell gorgets from the Crable site (Grif- 
fin 1958) and sites in the Tennessee-Cumberland 
area at a period which is closer to the later part 
of time range in question. An age of about 530± 
200 B.P. (M-554), which could be equivalent to 
a calendrical date of about A.D. 1405 using the 
conversion of Stuiver and Suess (1966), is avail- 
able from the Crable site (Crane and Griffin 
1959:181) and appears to be a suitable age for 
the appearance of this gorget style. 

*The unpublished dates have been released through 
the courtesy of Robert L. Hall, Illinois State Mu- 
seum. 



44 



REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM 



No. 12 



SUMMARY 



1. In 1940 a salvage excavation was con- 
ducted in the remains of a large pancake-shaped 
mound over five feet high and an estimated 100 
feet in diameter. The adjacent occupation area 
was also tested. 

2. The excavation in the mound yielded 49 
burials and 13 pottery vessels. 

3. The mound was actually found to consist 
of (a) a pre-mound cemetery located on a natural 
rise, (b) a stratum of local ash beds and char- 
coal lenses over individual burials, and (c) a 
single earthen cap that made up the actual mound 
and which had been placed over burials. 

4. The mound and the pre-mound cemetery 
belong to one late phase of the Langford tra- 
dition, which also includes the Zone I of the Mid- 
dle Level of the well known Big East and Big 
West mounds of the Fisher site in Illinois. 

5. The cemetery and burial mound date be- 
tween A.D. 1200 and 1500. 



6. The adjacent occupation area disclosed three 
complexes of which two were insignificant, and 
one was roughly contemporaneous with the mound 
and cemetery. 

7. This report has presented an argument that 
a structure of burial behavior can be derived from 
the various variables available to the archae- 
ologist for study. A well-defined element is the 
association of ceramic vessels and/or mussel shell 
spoons with the southern division burials in the 
north-south position of burial orientation. 

8. The burial forms that have been uncovered 
can be explained in terms of social variables 
rather than cultural influences. 

9. The Langford tradition is defined as a local 
expression of early Upper Mississippi culture in 
the eastern Prairie Peninsula. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 
APPENDIX 



45 



SKELETAL ANALYSIS 



by 

Georg K. Neumann 

The following identifications were made in 1965 upon skulls, which are the only bones in this collection that had be 
Only in the case of the infants and a few of the adolescents could some of the post-cranial bones also be drawn upon. 



kept. 



AGE AND SEX OF SKELETONS FROM MOUND Ls»2 



Dentition 

(yrs.) 



Epiphysia 
Union 



Suture 
Closure 



Bone Age at 
Death (yrs.) 



Ls2-1 
Ls2-2 


F 


None 


12-18 




Ls2-2A 











Ls2-3 


F 


None 


32 




Ls2-4 










Ls2-5 










Ls2-6 










Ls2-7 


M 


None 


25-30 




Ls2-8 


M 


None 


65 




Ls2-9 










Ls2-10 


F 


None 


70 




Ls2-ll 










Ls2-12 


M 


Occlusion? 


55 




Ls2-13 










Ls2-14 


M 


None 


35 




Ls2-15 


Child 


None 


5 




Ls2-16 


M 


None 


25 




Ls2-17 


M 


Posthumous 


25-30 




Ls2-18 


F 


None 


25-28 




Ls2-19 


M 


None 


30-35 




Ls2-19A 


M 


None 






Ls2-20 


F 


None 


18 




Ls2-21 


F 


None 


32 




Ls2-22 


Child 


None 


6 




Ls2-25 


F 


Posthumous 


25-30 




Ls2-26 


F 


None 


25-30 




Ls2-27 


M 


None 


25 




Ls2-29 


F 


None 


27-30 




Ls2-30 


Infant 




22 mos. 




Ls2-31 


M 




70+ 




Ls2-32 










Ls2-33 


F 


None 


23 




Ls2-34 










Ls2-35 


F 


Posthumous 


18 




Ls2-36 


F 


None 


38-40 




Ls2-37 


Infant 








Ls2-38 


Infant 




2 




Ls2-39 


Infant 




22 mos. 




Ls240 


F 


Posthumous 


18-20 




Ls241 


F 


Posthumous 


12 




Ls2-42 


Infant 




2 




Ls243 


F 


None 




(-17) 


Ls244 


M 


None 


55 




Ls245 


F 




15 


14 


Ls246 


M 


Posthumous 


3540 




Ls247 


Infant (F) 


None 


2 




Ls247A 










Ls248 


Child (F) 


None 


6-7 




Ls249 


F 


Posthumous 


60 





26-29 
47-51 



22-26 



13 

Fetus 

32 



35-38 


37 




5 


22-26 


23 


29-38 


32 


26-29 


27 


Sprung 


32 


45+ 


47 


18+(?) 


18 


38-42 


35 




6 


26-29 


27 


26-29 


28 


22-26 


25 


26-29 


28 




22 mos 


65-81 


70 



18-22 


19 


38-41 


40 




2 1/2 




2 




22 mos 




20 




12 




2 




12 


42-47 


47 




14 




37 




2 




6 




60 



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4f. 



1967 



BROWN: GENTLEMAN FARM SITE 



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